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Data collected during the first 5 years of this program showed that the modes and MIC 50 values remained stable (within one doubling dilution) for each antimicrobial tested against E. coli from both dogs and cats for each year of testing; MIC 90 values were stable over the years tested with some exceptions. For amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and ampicillin, mode and MIC 50 values remained the same (4 lg/mL) and MIC 90 values ranged from8-> 16 lg/mL. During this time, the in vitro testing for cefovecin, cefpodoxime, and ceftiofur were steady, the mode, MIC 50 , and MIC 90 values ranged from 0.5 to 2 lg/mL, with a few single drug, single year MIC 90 values testing outside that range. The mode and MIC 50 values for the fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin) all tested at ≤0.12 lg/mL, while MIC 90 values ranged from 0.06 to 4 lg/mL. For trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, mode and MIC 50 values were stable (≤0.12 lg/mL) and MIC 90 values ranged from ≤0.25 to 1 lg/mL. In vitro testing of cephalexin was included in 2015. The mode and MIC 50 values for this single year of testing E. coli from both dogs and cats were both 8 lg/mL, while the MIC 90 value was 16 lg/mL in cats and >64 lg/mL in dogs. Screening and phenotypic confirmation only of Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase (ESBL) production in E. coli were done following CLSI standards. Over the 5 years of testing, 1.2% (23 of 1933) of the E. coli isolated from dogs and 0.8% (11 of 1367) of the E. coli isolated from cats were confirmed as ESBL-producing strains.


It was concluded that insulin expression did not differ between IR and IS groups and there was no evidence that insulin resistance increases insulin secretion within pancreatic islets. Lower glucagon expression in IR horses may be a result of compensatory downregulation of hormone secretion in response to hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia. Insulin dysregulation (ID), specifically hyperinsulinemia, has been identified as a cause of laminitis. Certain breeds are seemingly more susceptible. Understanding breed differences in insulin responses and measures of lipid metabolism/adipokines may be critical for identifying truly "at risk" individuals. Insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGTT) (N = 90) and oral sugar tests (OST) (N = 82) were performed along with assessment of markers for lipid metabolism/adipokines (N = 90) in 5 breeds (Quarter Horses (QH), Arabians, Morgans, Welsh Ponies (WP), and Thoroughbreds). Minimal model analyses of the FSIGTT for insulin sensitivity (SI), the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), disposition index (DI), glucose mediated glucose disposal (Sg), the lowest glucose value (Gmin), and the deflection of glucose below baseline (dGB) were assessed. OST insulin thresholds, trajectories, and area under the curve (AUC) were assessed. Statistics included: multilevel regression analysis, regression modeling of time trajectories, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, ROC curve analysis (significant at P < 0.05). QH had higher SI than all other breeds, lower AIRg than WP and Arabians, and higher DI than Morgans. Arabians had higher AIRg than Morgans, and lower Sg than WP. Morgans had lower AIRg than WPs. Arabians, Morgans, and WP had lower Gmins than Thoroughbreds. Morgans had a greater dGB than QHs. Different OST insulin thresholds for ID existed between breeds. OST glucose and insulin trajectories and AUC were lowest in QH. Significant breed differences existed in nonesterified fatty acids, high molecular weight adiponectin, leptin, and triglycerides. Breed specific differences are important to consider when evaluating metabolic health. Insulin dysregulation, specifically hyperinsulinemia, has been identified as a cause of laminitis. Muscle and adipose tissue have large roles in insulin regulation and in the pathology of human metabolic syndrome, but these roles have not been well interrogated in horses. Tailhead adipose tissue (N = 76) and middle gluteal muscle (N = 28) biopsies were performed (4 equine breeds: Quarter Horses (QH); Arabians, Morgans, Welsh Ponies (WP)) to relate adipocyte area (AA) and muscle fiber type percent area and proportions to body condition score (BCS), total body fat mass (TBFM) (using the deuterium dilution technique) and minimal model parameters from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Statistics included: Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, MANOVA, and Spearman correlation. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Overall BCS was weakly to moderately correlated to insulin sensitivity (SI), the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), and AA. TBFM was not correlated to SI and weakly correlated to AIRg and AA overall, but moderately correlated to AA in QH. QH had a significantly smaller AA than Arabians and WP but not Morgans. AA was weakly related to SI and moderately to AIRg. Baseline insulin concentrations were moderately correlated to Type 1 muscle fiber percent area and proportion. No breed differences existed between muscle fiber type area or proportion. There were breed differences in adipocyte, but not muscle histology. The weak correlations between BCS, TBFM and SI and AIRg suggest that adiposity may not be a key factor in determining metabolic fitness in horses. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), a clustering of metabolic disturbances resulting in insulin dysregulation and derangements in fat metabolism, is the most common cause of laminitis. Previous work from our lab has confirmed that the pathophysiology of EMS is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to the phenotypic variability in metabolic traits. The objective of this project was to identify genomic regions contributing to EMS by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a cohort of 232 Welsh ponies and 286 Morgan horses phenotyped for 11 metabolic traits. Genotyping was performed on one of three SNP arrays (54,000, 670,000 to 1,800,000 SNPs); genotype imputation allowed for generation of a uniform set of makers across platforms (~1.8 million SNPs). GWAS was performed using a mixed linear regression model with sex and age included as covariates. Within breeds, a total of 67 (Welsh ponies) and 116 (Morgans) significant loci were identified for the metabolic traits, of which 4 were shared between breeds. Loci were defined as shared if SNPs with a P-value < 1.00e-05 were within a 500 kb window of each other. Specifically, shared loci were identified on ECA10, ECA18, ECA20, and ECA3 for insulin levels post oral sugar test, and baseline non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and ACTH, respectively, with a total of 75 candidate genes identified. These data confirm that EMS is a polygenic trait with risk loci unique to individual breeds as well as those shared between breeds. Future directions include interrogation of these regions through whole genome sequencing. The relationship between insulin dysregulation, dietary adaptation and aging is poorly understood yet critical to making dietary recommendations for horses at risk of insulin dysregulation and associated laminitis. In this study, the effect of age and diet on insulin and glucose dynamics was examined in 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses, divided into two groups: Adult (8.8 AE 2.9 years; mean AE SD) and Aged (20.6 AE 2.1 years). Four concentrate isocaloric diets: Base (low starch, low sugar), Starch (base plus kibbled corn), Fiber (base plus beet pulp and soybean hulls), and Sugar (base plus dextrose powder) were each fed for seven weeks (balanced four-way crossover). Horses were group fed low non-structural carbohydrate hay once daily, and individually fed concentrate meals twice daily. In the seventh week, insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests and oral sugar tests (OST) (0.25 mL/kg corn syrup) were performed. Data were analyzed with multivariable linear mixed regression (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), OST_peak insulin, insulin area under the curve, and OST_insulin 75 minutes were higher in Aged than Adult independent of diet. Aged had higher AIRg and disposition index on Fiber and Sugar, and glucose effectiveness on Sugar than Adults adapted to the same diet. Adults had lower OST_insulin basal on Fiber compared to Sugar. Aged horses had higher OST_peak insulin than Adults on Fiber. Age and diet had an influence on insulin and glucose dynamics, and should be considered when evaluating a horse's metabolic status. Diagnosing and managing horses with metabolic disorders including obesity is challenging due to a poorly understood pathogenesis and lack of well-characterized risk factors and therapeutic options. In other species, differences in fecal bile acids (BA), fatty acids (FA), and sterols have been recognized in metabolic disease; however, these have not been reported for horses. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare fecal BA, sterols, and FA between obese and non-obese horses.


EFFECT OF AGE AND CORTISOL ON EQUINE DENDRITIC CELLS AFTER EXPOSURE TO BACTERIA EX VIVO. B. Gorham 1 , D. Hurley 1 , S. Giguere 2 , N. Norton 1 , S. Giancola 1 , K. Hart 1 . 1 University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA, 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in the immune response to bacteria, but foal DC function is not well characterized. Monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) were generated from 8 foals at 1, 7 and 30 days-of-age and 9 adult horses. MoDCs were incubated for 48 hours with or without killed Escherichia coli or Staphlococcous aureus antigen in the presence or absence of cortisol (15 lg/dL). MoDC expression of MHCII, CD86, and CD14 was measured with flow cytometry, and supernatant cytokine concentrations (IL-4, IL-17, IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, and IL-10) were quantified with a fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. Effects of age and cortisol on MoDC variables were determined with mixed-effects linear models (significance P < 0.05). The percentage of cells expressing MHCII and CD86 was lower and CD14 was higher in 1-day-oldfoal MoDCs compared to horse MoDCs (P ≤ 0.006). Bacterial exposure alone did not alter surface marker expression in foal or horse cells, but exposure to bacteria with cortisol further reduced MHCII expression in foal cells (P < 0.001). Following bacterial exposure, 1-day-old-foal MoDCs produced significantly less IL-4, IL-17, IFN-gamma, and IFN-alpha and more IL-10 than horse MoDCs (P < 0.001). Following bacterial exposure, 1-day-old-foal MoDCs produced significantly less IL-4, IL-17, IFN-gamma, and IFN-alpha and more IL-10 than horse MoDCs (P < 0.001). Foal MoDCs exhibit phenotypic and functional immaturity that persists during the first month of life and is compounded by exposure to cortisol. Thus, foal DCs may be less effective at activating lymphocyte responses, which could contribute to foals' increased susceptibility to bacterial sepsis. Pulmonary neutrophilia is a characteristic finding in severe equine asthma (SEA or heaves) and is also common in moderate equine asthma (MEA, or inflammatory airway disease). MPXI, NeutX and NeutY are blood neutrophil activation parameters (activity of myeloperoxidase and neutrophils' size) automatically provided by the ADVIA 120 Hematology Analyzer. The aim of this study was to evaluate these indices in healthy and asthmatic horses, and how corticosteroids can affect them.


breeds, total phenotypic variance is explained by < 1% of the SNPs tested. These SNPs were further partitioned based on estimated effect sizes. In the TB, SNPs of small, moderate, and large effect account for 45%, 35%, and 20% of the phenotypic variability, respectively. Similarly, in STDBs, small, moderate, and large effect SNPs explain 47%, 30%, and 23% variability, respectively. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified seven genomic regions of interest (ROIs) significantly associated with RER in TB (n = 491) and STDB (n = 476) horses: two in TBs, four in STDBs, and one shared locus. Of the 274 genes within these ROIs, 34 were computationally predicted to be candidate genes for rhabdomyolysis in humans. Variants in each ROI were identified using whole genome sequences from 10 RER and 10 controls in each breed. 189,610 total variants were discovered in the ROIs, with an average of 7.5 variants per kb. Of these variants, 47.5% were within genes, and 1.1% had putative functional effects. Variants will be prioritized based on segregation between RER and control horses and predicted functional effect. High-priority variants will be used to create an assay for genotyping in the entire GWAS population. The sepsis score (SS) has been used to diagnose or assume the presence of sepsis in newborn foals over the last thirty years. However, clinical experience and recent validation studies suggest that the SS is not as accurate to predict sepsis as in the original study. Therefore, a novel scoring methodthe foal survival score (FSS) was recently developed to predict likelihood of survival in sick newborn foals. Based on sensitivity and specificity, the FSS has good ability to predict survival; however, the association of the FSS with severity of illness remains to be determined. The lower the FSS the more likely is the foal to die. High SS indicates severe disease. We hypothesized that the FSS will be a good predictor of disease severity (compared to SS) and outcome in hospitalized foals.


Mane and tail hair from healthy broodmares (n = 10) was collected, segmented and analyzed. Additionally, yearling male (n = 14) and female horses (n = 14) were used. Separate mane and tail hair samples were collected at the beginning of the study (before castration) and 3 months after from male and female yearlings. Cortisol was extracted into methanol from ground hair and quantified using ELISA. HCC in mane samples from broodmares was greater than in tail samples. In all studied groups, segments further away from the hair root contained lower HCC. The decrease in hair cortisol concentrations between 1 and 2-months post-castration was significantly lower in castrated males than intact females. Cortisol accumulation in the month after castration could explain the significantly smaller decrease in HCC concentrations in males than females during the same time period. Results suggest that HCC analysis in horses can be used to address basal and elevated HPA activity in horses. Nevertheless, other factors such as segment location and collection site may also have an effect on measured HCC. Our group has demonstrated that up to 49% of Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) phenotypic variability is explained by shared environment; however only 4-18% of this environmental variability is explained by diet, exercise and season, suggesting other environmental factors play a role in EMS. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are associated with metabolic syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities in humans, and our preliminary data demonstrated that horses from farms < 31 miles of EDC disposal sites (SF) were more likely to have had laminitis and had higher post oral-sugar-challenge insulin concentrations (INS-OST). These data suggested that EDC exposure is an EMS risk factor.
We have previously reported the measurement of the concentration of EDCs capable of activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor via a bioassay (AHR-EDC); and the correlations between these EDCs and metabolic measurements in 301 horses from 32 farms. Here we extend these findings by presenting correlations between EDCs capable of activating the estrogen receptor (ER-EDC). Significance was P < 0.05. Mean (range) ER-EDC concentrations were 279.66 (4.35-15,000) pg/mL plasma. EDCs were below the detection limit in approximately half of the horses. AICc statistics were used to determine the best linear multivariable regression model for EDC association with 9 EMS phenotypic variables. ER-EDC was associated with glucose after an oral sugar test (OST), glucose, insulin and insulin-OST. Overall, these results suggest that some of the unexplained environmental variance in individuals with EMS is due to EDC exposure, which is mediated in part through the estrogen and arylhydrocarbon receptors. Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID) has been described as one of the most common diseases of horses and ponies 15 years of age and older. Recently, the clinical signs of PPID have been divided into early and advanced clinical signs. Establishing a diagnosis of PPID in horses with early clinical signs is currently a difficult challenge facing equine veterinarians. Particularly difficult may be the diagnosis of horses with PPID in the equine athlete. Many of the same clinical signs identified in early or advanced PPID may be recognized in the sport horse along with tendon or suspensory ligament degeneration. Suspensory ligament injuries have been considered a common cause of lameness, in the equine athlete involved in competitive events. A recent histopathological study concluded that an association exists between PPID and suspensory ligament (SL) degeneration. The objective of this study was to identify the most common clinical signs associated with PPID in the sport horse. Sport horses >10 years of age, any breed, and sex were eligible for study enrollment as long as they were documented to be exhibiting one or more of the early or advanced clinical signs of PPID including suspensory ligament desmitis. Forty-nine horses were evaluated and included in the final data analysis with at least one clinical sign of early or advanced PPID. Demographic data, signalment, and a physical examination was conducted and each horse was tested for PPID using the TRH stimulation test measuring ACTH at 0 (T0ACTH) and 10 (T10ACTH) min. Insulin and glucose levels were also determined. Normal horses were excluded from the study. Blood samples were shipped overnight to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY for analysis. The association between PPID status, based on ACTH and insulin results, and each of the demographic variables (age, sex, and breed), clinical signs, the two test result variables insulin and glucose were statistically evaluated individually using the Pearson chi-square test. Odds ratios for significant predictors of PPID status were computed using corresponding 95% confidence intervals when applying multiple logistic regression analysis.
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WITH ALOPECIA X. Melissa Sanches 1 , Marcia Jeric o 2 , Eric Janu ario 1 . 1 Pet Care Centro Veterin ario, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2 Universidade Anhembi Morumbi and Clinica Veterin aria Alto da Lapa Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil Alopecia X is a skin disease of unknown etiology characterized by non-inflammatory, bilateral and symmetric alopecia, with hyperpigmentation and absence of pruritus. This condition is most frequently observed in young dogs of Nordic breeds, and is thought to be related to abnormal adrenal gland function, with trilostane and melatonin having been proposed as possible treatment alternatives. This study aims to evaluate the comprehensive steroid panel and therapeutic response of Pomeranian dogs diagnosed with Alopecia X. Eighteen Pomeranian dogs admitted at veterinary clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) with a chief complaint of symmetric and bilateral alopecia were studied. These included 12 males and 6 females, 16 of which were neutered, aging from 2 to 5 years. All animals were subjected to thorough laboratory screening: complete blood count with differential leukocyte count, liver function enzymes, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood glucose, and thyroid panel, as well as urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography; all exam results were within the reference values. Subsequently, blood samples were collected to quantify by radioimmunoassay at Provet Laboratories (Brazil) and Tennessee University the following hormones, both before and after synthetic ACTH stimulation (single dose 0.05 mg/kg/EV): 17-hydroxiprogesterone, aldosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone. Eight dogs were then subjected treatment A (trilostane 1 mg/kg PO BID), seven dogs were subjected to treatment B (trilostane 1 mg/kg PO BID and melatonin 3 mg/dog PO BID) and two dogs received treatment C (melatonin 3 mg/dog PO BID); three animals were lost to followup. In comparison to reference values established by the laboratories for both neutered and non-neutered dogs, the animals with Alopecia X presented higher levels in three of the seven hormones both before and after the ACTH stimulation test. Abnormally elevated hormone levels were observed prior to and following ACTH stimulation in respectively: 3 (17%) and 16 dogs (89%) for 17hydroxiprogesterone, 9 (50%) and 10 dogs (55%) for androstenedione, and 2 (11%) and 16 dogs (89%) for progesterone. Also, the abnormally elevated testosterone levels were observed in 6 dogs (33%) prior to ACTH stimulation and 8 dogs (44%) following ACTH stimulation. Two dogs presented abnormally decreased estradiol levels, both prior to and following ACTH stimulation. On the other hand, abnormally elevated cortisol levels were observed in 3 dogs (17%) prior to ACTH stimulation, and these elevated levels were maintained by only one dog (6%) following ACTH administration. In contrast, all dogs had aldosterone levels within reference ranges, with the exception of one dog with slightly elevated aldosterone levels prior to ACTH stimulation. Of the dogs subjected to treatment A, four (50%) had complete hair regrowth and three (37.5%) had partial regrowth after three months of treatment. Of the dogs subjected to treatment B, one (14%) had complete hair regrowth, four (57%) had partial regrowth, and one (14%) did not show signs of regrowth. Treatment for one of the two dogs subjected to treatment C had to be withdrawn due to emesis. Pomeranian dogs affected by Alopecia X presented increased levels of 17-hydroxiprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and progesterone, both prior to and following stimulation with synthetic ACTH, suggesting an adrenal gland increased function in the sex hormones production. Due this, trilostane, as a steroidogenesis blocker, was found to be a positive therapeutic option for Alopecia X, with or without the association of melatonin. Phenotypic identification of cats at risk of developing diabetes has yet to be defined. Burmese cats are reported to have a dyslipidemia and are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop diabetes than other breeds.


Due to its neuronal modulatory actions, our study suggests that oxytocin concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of NMS and other disorders of the equine neonate. Hyperprogesteronemia was associated with NMS, sepsis, and poor prognosis for survival in hospitalized foals. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), a clustering of clinical signs including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, is the most common cause of laminitis, a painful and life-threatening disease of the horse's hoof. In a large across-breeds study of metabolic variation in horses, our lab demonstrated that EMS phenotypic variability in metabolic traits is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Further, we demonstrated that certain features of the EMS phenotype are different between breeds. The objective of this project was to identify genomic regions contributing to EMS by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a cohort of 232 Welsh ponies phenotyped for 11 metabolic traits. Individuals were genotyped on one of two SNP arrays (670,000 to 1,800,000 SNPs); the software program Beagle was used to generate a uniform set of makers across both platforms (~1.8 million SNPs). GWAS was performed using a mixed linear regression model that included a random polygenic term determined from a genomic relationship matrix calculated from select trait associated SNPs, random herd effect, and fixed covariates sex and age. Significant loci were identified for several EMS traits. Specific examples include loci on ECA1 (P = 5.04e-08) and ECA15 (P = 5.43e-12) for fasting adiponectin and triglyceride levels, respectively. For fasting insulin levels, significant loci were identified on ECA18 (P = 4.77e-10) and ECA6 (P = 4.33e-09). Candidate genes in these regions include a gene associated with obesity in humans on ECA18, and a gene associated with height and insulin resistance on ECA6. Future directions include haplotype analysis and interrogation of these regions through whole genome sequencing. Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, increased parathyroid hormone (PTH), and reduced vitamin D metabolite concentrations were recently documented in critically ill foals by our group. However, information on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and klotho, two factors that regulate vitamin D activation and PTH secretion, and their association with calcium, phosphorus, PTH, and vitamin D concentrations in healthy and hospitalized foals is lacking. FGF-23 is released by osteocytes in response to increased 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , PTH, and phosphorus concentrations. FGF-23 suppresses renal 1a-hydroxylase activity and PTH synthesis. Klotho is secreted by the kidneys and acts as a co-receptor for FGF-23. The goal of this study was to determine the relevance of FGF-23 and klotho in calcium, phosphorus, PTH, and vitamin D regulation, including their association with clinical and laboratorial findings, disease severity and outcome in hospitalized foals. We hypothesized that elevated FGF-23 and reduced klotho concentrations will be frequent, associated with calcium and phosphorus dysregulation, PTH and vitamin D metabolite (25(OH)D 3 , 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) concentrations, severity of illness, and mortality in critically ill foals.


Sian Durward-Akhurst 1 , Nichol Schulz 1 , Elaine Norton 1 , Raymond Geor 2 , James Mickelson 1 , Molly Mccue 1 . 1 University of Minnesota, MN, USA, 2 Mmassey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is characterized by abnormalities in insulin regulation, increased adiposity and laminitis. In a large across-breed study (610 individuals) of 11 morphometric and biochemical metabolic traits, our lab has demonstrated that 51-77% of the phenotypic variability is due to individual factors including age, breed, sex and genetics and 23-49% of the phenotypic variability is the result of shared environment. Despite up to 49% of the variability in EMS phenotype being related to shared environment; only 4-18% of this variability is explained by diet, amount and intensity of exercise and season, suggesting that other environmental factors play a role in EMS development. Recent work has identified associations between Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) and human metabolic syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities. Our preliminary data demonstrated that horses from farms within 30 miles of EDC disposal sites (EPA "Superfund sites") were more likely to have had laminitis (P = 0.002) and had higher post oral sugar challenge insulin concentrations (OST INS) (P = 0.00005), suggesting EDC exposure is an EMS risk factor. The objective of this study was to determine if plasma EDC concentration is correlated to metabolic measurements. Plasma EDC concentrations were measured using the CALUX-DR bioassay in 158 Morgans and 137 Welsh Ponies from 32 farms. Grams fat extracted from plasma and sex (female) were negatively correlated with EDC concentration. EDC concentration was positively associated with OST INS (P = 0.03). The results suggest that some of the unexplained environmental variance identified in individuals with EMS is due to exposure to EDCs. Veterinarians have identified equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) as the most common cause of laminitis within equine practice. An oral sugar test (OST) has been used clinically to identify "at risk" horses although it has not been rigorously compared to a "gold standard" frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) in a large number of horses or across different breeds.


Equine EPCs are effectively labeled with QD, and QD concentrations up to 20 nM do not affect cell growth or function. The use of QD labeling with equine EPCs may help track engraftment of EPCs in clinical applications. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most prevalent pathogens isolated from intramammary infection in goats, with more than 15 different species being identified in goat milk. Unlike cows, the relationship between CNS infection, somatic cell count and milk loss in goats is less clear. The conflicting results between studies on CNS mastitis in goats may be explained by the variation between studies in regard to distribution of CNS species, varying pathogenicity between species, the presence of confounding factors affecting outcome measures, and variation between studies in regard to speciation methods. Phenotypic speciation was used in most studies; however genotyping is considered more reliable than phenotyping for identification of CNS species in goats. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of species-specific CNS intramammary infections in a large dairy goat herd in Missouri.
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1. To learn about the general brain cortical anatomy. 2. To be able to identify the most important cortical anatomy involved in the language system and its imaging representation. 3. To be able to recognise the most import white matter tracts involved in the language system and its imaging representation. 4. To get a glimpse into the relevant anatomical and clinical insights coming from MR microscopy. MRI is an imaging technique that is particularly sensitive to haemorrhages in the brain. Apart from large haematomas and recent subarachnoid haemorrhages, that are also visible on CT, using MRI minute haemorrhages (microbleeds) can be detected within the brain and subtle remote haemorrhages in the subarachnoid space (superficial siderosis) can be detected. In addition, MRI allows for assessment of the age of cerebral haemorrhages, based on signal characteristics. The location of cerebral haemorrhages allows for an estimation of the underlying pathology. For example, haematomas with a lobar distribution are suggestive of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, those located in the basal ganglia in a patient with hypertension are suggestive of hypertensive microangiopathy, and blood in the subarachnoid space is suggestive of a ruptured aneurysm. A comprehensive MRI protocol (comprising T2*-weighted images, post-gadolinium images, and MRA techniques) also allows Complexity and heterogeneity of the lymphomas and especially the DLBCL (Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) have been demonstrated over the past 10 years, first by the most recent WHO classification that includes no less than 50 different subentities, and second by the gene expression profiling analyses leading to a molecular classification in the most common form of adult non Hodgkin's lymphoma, the DLBCL entity. The prognosis has been demonstrated to be variable according to the morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular classification. The therapeutic approach is different according to the classification. So the importance of the material obtained by different techniques is crucial: excisional lymph node biopsy or core needle biopsy (which is increasingly replacing chirurgical techniques) must be properly used in order to obtain a good morphology and frozen material dedicated to molecular analysis. Learning Objectives: