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Prieto-Ramos 1 , Simon Swift 3 , Andrea Corda 4 , Brendan Corcoran 2 , Kim Summers 2 , Iñigo Sanz 1 , Anne French 1 . 1 University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 2 University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 3 University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 4 University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are predisposed to degenerative atrioventricular valve disease. The prevalence of echocardiographic changes in aged CKCS has not been reported.
In this population of aged CKCS, 100% showed echocardiographic evidence of degenerative atrioventricular valve disease however a low prevalence of markers of disease severity were found. Aims: to compare inter-observer agreement between different methods for measuring left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and left atrial (LA) size and evaluate the magnitude of difference between these measurement methods.


In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the ACEI imidapril has a good clinical efficacy in the treatment of dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by MMVD. Moreover, the results indicate that imidapril is not inferior to the earlier ACEI ramipril, and treatment with the imidapril is well-tolerated. Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common acquired canine heart disease, characterized by various severities of clinical signs from asymptomatic state to sudden death. Because of potential deleterious consequences and high prevalence of MMVD in veterinary medicine, it is important to detect progression of the disease early and accurately. Of tools for evaluation of myocardial function, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging were relatively recent technique and independent of load conditions compared with conventional echocardiography. Although valuations of TDI and strain imaging have been performed in MMVD dogs, the classification was quite broad to examine changes with progression of the disease. Therefore, we sought to investigate the alterations of TDI and strain imaging in MMVD dogs with different stages divided into 4 groups. In addition, we aimed to investigate the correlation between variables of conventional echocardiographic, and TDI and strain imaging examination.


In this study, dogs consisted of 20 healthy dogs and 31 dogs with MMVD. The classification of MMVD dogs used in the study was in the basis of the ISACH scale; class I (n = 10), class II (n = 11), class IIIa (n = 6), and class IIIb (n = 4). 2D, Mmode echocardiography, and Doppler examinations were performed in all dogs with unsedated state for conventional echocardiography. 2D color TDI examinations were conducted in shortaxis view for radial and circumferential motion, and in longitudinal view for IVS and LV motion. Radial strain and strain rate seemed decreased with severity. Longitudinal motions showed systolic and diastolic TDI and strain variables increased to moderate stage (class II or IIIa) and decreased in severe stage. Intra-ventricular dyssynchrony, measured as difference in time-to-peak between LV and IVS, was observed in MMVD dogs with high prevalence. Dyssynchrony among segments in each wall was also revealed in MMVD dogs. Left atrial to aortic ratio was positively correlated to mitral E wave to peak early diastolic velocity in the LV basal segment (E/Em), and fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) was positively correlated to radial strain. Mitral E wave velocity was negatively correlated to LV systolic time-to-peak and strain time-to-peak. Circumferential variables had no significant correlations to conventional echocardiographic variables. Coccygeal arterial blood pressure measurement is better tolerated than radial arterial measurement in cats, but discordant results are common. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of age, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) on radial and coccygeal blood pressure measurements.
In conclusion, normal dogs have an elliptical and saddleshaped annulus and an allometric relationship exists between MV size and BW. 3DTTE is a feasible and generally repeatable method for assessing the MV in normal dogs. The feasibility improved over time as a result of experience. The higher CV derived from measurement of two datasets from the same dog. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most important feline heart disease and it is characterized by ventricular hypertrophy in absence of dilated left ventricle. In humans, the prevalence is 1 to 500 individuals and the familial HCM occurs in at least 60% of cases. There are more than 1400 mutations in more than 11 sarcomeres genes related to HCM. In some families of cats, HCM is an autosomal dominant genetic disease very similar to the human HCM. A mutation in myosin binding protein C gene (MYBPC3) is observed in Maine Coon cats with HCM. In Ragdoll cats, HCM is associated with a mutation in the same gene, but in a different codon highly conserved in feline species. In other breeds such as Persian, British Shorthair and Norwegian Forest there is also evidence of familial HCM, but the type of genetic inheritance is unknown. Persians cats presents high incidence of HCM and there are reports of familial hereditary component, but the mutation and the genetic inheritance have not been discovered yet.


Persians cats with PKD mutation presented a higher prevalence of myocardial hypertrophy, even before changes in arterial blood pressure and renal function. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is also a prevalent condition in Persian cat and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the causal relationship between PKD and hypertrophy or the genetic association between PKD and HCM. As a conclusion, it is necessary the cardiovascular evaluation of PKD positive cats (as some may have cardiovascular abnormalities); and it is important to include the PDK (even in early stages) as a differential diagnosis of HCM in Persians cats. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL, CYCLOSPORIN-A AND SILDENAFIL CITRATE ON DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED CARDIOMYOPA-THY IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL WITH RABBITS. Fernando A Rosa 1 , Felipe K Adams 1 , Murillo D Kirnew 1 , Fabio N Gava 2 , Aparecido A Camacho 1 . 1 São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, 2 Unicastelo University, Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents currently available. However, its use has been limited by its cardiotoxic effect, especially when used for a long time, leading to iatrogenic cardiomyopathy related to the cumulative dose administered. Because of the refractoriness of its cardiotoxic effects, the prevention plays a singular role. With this purpose, carvedilol, cyclosporin A and sildenafil citrate were tested to assess its cardioprotective action in an experimental model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy with rabbits.


Complete medical records were identified in 73 dogs and 13 cats and data analyzed for prevalence of ES/ESE, EEG patterns, associated risk factors, and outcome.


Of the 14 hyperthyroid cats with detectable serum TSH values, 10 had mild disease (T4 < 6 lg/dl) and 4 had moderate hyperthyroidism (T4 ≥ 6-12 lg/dl); none of the cats with severe thyroid disease had measurable TSH values. Prevalence of detectable serum TSH values in cats with mild hyperthyroidism (4.4%) was significantly (P = 0.016) higher than the prevalence in cats with moderate disease (1.2%).


The data shows that as a group older cats and hyperthryoid cats have similar blood pressures with a similar percentage of cats being considered at risk of target organ damage (61% of control cats and 67% of hyperthyroid cats based on systolic blood pressure) however in the hyperthyroid group there is a higher percentage of cats with severe risk of target organ damage. Diastolic risk of target organ damage was more common in the hyperthyroid group (29% vs. 17%), though generally only moderate or mild. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of adrenal tumors (AT) in dogs. A retrospective study was conducted based on clinical records considering age, breed, sex, clinical signs, laboratorial findings, hormonal tests, medical or surgical treatment, histological findings and survival from dogs diagnosed with AT between January 2012 and November 2014 at the Naya Especialidades Veterinary Clinics. Among 49 dogs diagnosed with AT, 37 (76%) were female and the mean age was 11.3 AE 2.5 years. Forty-four (89,79%) dogs were purebred, mainly Shih Tzu (11), Lhasa apso (6) and Dachshund (6). The mean body weight was 12.37 AE 11.6 kg (Median 7 kg; range, 3.4 to 60 kg). Body weight was ≤ 10 kg in 69.4% of dogs. Polyuria, polydipsia (59.2%), polyphagia (59.2%) and abdominal distension (36.7%) were the most frequent clinical signs. Increased ALP (86.7%) and ALT (40%), hyperlipidemia (45.6%), low urinary density (57.5%), thrombocytosis (30.2%) and hypertension (51.4%) were reported. A diagnosis of adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism on the basis of nonsuppressed serum cortisol concentration by use of an LDDS test or an inappropriately high serum cortisol concentration after ACTH stimulation was observed in 48,5% and 38,8%, respectively. Forty-eight per cent of dogs had right AT, 36.7% left and 22.4% bilateral. Adrenalectomy was performed on 20 dogs (40,8%). The histological findings revealed adenoma in 65%, carcinoma in 20% and pheocromocitoma in 15% of dogs. Twenty dogs were treated only with trilostane and 8 had no therapy. Of the 49 dogs, 45 (92%) are still alive in a 2 years follow up. Primary AT incidence may be increasing, especially in small dogs (< 10 kg). Cortex adrenal tumors are more common, but some animals may be asymptomatic and have negative LDDS and ACTH stimulation test. Therapy with adrenalectomy or trilostane should be encouraged. Pancreatitis is the most common exocrine pancreatic disease in dogs and has a multifactorial etiology. Endocrine abnormalities and hyperlipidemia are considered risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of acute pancreatitis with diabetes mellitus (DM), confirmed hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), possibility of HAC (adrenomegaly on ultrasound without previous diagnosis of HAC), hypothyroidism (HYPOT), hypertriglyceridemia (HYPERTRI) and hypercholesterolemia (HYPER CHOL). A retrospective study was performed in dogs admitted to a private veterinary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Dogs with symptoms and sonographic diagnosis of pancreatitis in the years 2012 and 2013 (group 1, n = 50) and control group dogs without sonographic pancreatic alterations, but with chronic kidney disease from 2013 to 2014 (group 2, n = 41) were studied. The past history was evaluated for the diagnosis of diabetes (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL, positive glycosuria), HAC (cortisol after low dose dexamethasone > 1.4 ug/dL or post ACTH > 21 ug/dL) and HYPOT (thyroid-stimulating hormone > 0.5 ng/mL and dialysis free thyroxine < 0.82 ng/dL). Fasting triglyceride and cholesterol measurements during hospitalization identified the presence of HYPERTRI (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) and HYPERCHOL (cholesterol > 300 mg/dL). Twenty-one (42%) dogs in group 1 had HYPERTRI, 18 (36%) had HYPERCHOL, 11 (22%) had adrenomegaly, nine (18%) were diagnosed with DM, five (10%) were diagnosed with HAC, two (4%) were diagnosed with HYPOT. In group 2, 12 (29.26%) dogs had HYPERCHOL, five (12.19%) had HYPERTRI, two (4.87%) had adrenomegaly, two (4.87%) were diagnosed with HAC, two (4.87%) were diagnosed with HYPOT, one (2.43%) was diagnosed with DM. DM, adrenomegaly and HYPERTRI showed significant association (p ≤ 0.05) with pancreatitis. The inclusion of the variable DM in the logistic regression model showed no significance, mainly due to colinearity with the variable HYPERTRI. Dogs with HYPER-TRI and adrenomegaly had increased odds ratio (OR=5.3 and 7.2 respectively; 95% confidence intervals) for pancreatitis. Results in this study suggested that HYPERTRI and possibility of HAC (represented by adrenomegaly) are associated with pancreatitis in dogs. An association has been suggested between developing acute pancreatitis (AP) and concurrent endocrinopathies including diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and hypothyroidism, although no conclusive data are available to confirm it. Moreover, there has been much debate whether hormone imbalances can directly affect the development of AP and/or whether hyperlipidemia induced by endocrinopathies might play a role. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence of AP in dogs with endocrinopathies and to examine the association between those endocrinopathies and hyperlipidemia in dogs with AP. Medical records of 104 dogs newly-diagnosed with AP from 2012 to 2014 were examined for the presence or absence of HAC, DM, and hypothyroidism. Two age-and breedmatched randomized controls for each AP dog were examined for the same endocrinopathies. A matched case-control analysis was performed, and the association between hyperlipidemia and endocrinopathies in the AP group was subsequently evaluated using binary logistic regression analysis.


In dogs with HAC, the odds of AP were 4.55 times that of dogs without HAC, and in dogs with DM, the odds were 12.44 times that of dogs without DM. In addition, there was a significant association between the presence of DM and hyperlipidemia in the AP group. This study showed that hyperlipidemia caused by DM was associated with AP in dogs, but an association was not observed between HAC and hyperlipidemia in dogs with AP. However, further study will be necessary to clarify the prevalence of AP in dogs with DM and HAC. Dysregulation of adipokines has been described in humans with cardiovascular disease, but information is lacking on concentrations of circulating adipokines in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). The objective of this case-controlled observational study was to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Initially, a preliminary study was performed on 21 client-owned dogs with MMVD and 30 healthy dogs with the same body condition score, and several adipokines were measured. Based on the preliminary results, serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were re-evaluated in 46 dogs newlydiagnosed with MMVD which were divided into 3 groups according to the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification.


After 1 year of follow-up, the percentage of the GB filled by sludge was mild (32%), moderate (47%), moderate to severe (5%), and severe (3%) with no significant differences over time. The prevalence of non-gravity dependent sludge significantly increased (P = 0.004). Dogs had resolved (2%), decreased (19%), persistent (40%), increased (29%), or recurrent (10%) sludge at the conclusion of the study. Biochemical indices or GB volume were not significantly different over time or among groups.


Healthy Greyhounds had higher serum HCY concentrations than Greyhounds with diarrhea or thrombotic disease. All healthy Greyhounds were hyperhomocysteinemic, which suggests that Greyhounds could serve as a novel canine model to further investigate hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. However, further studies are warranted to characterize this model. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fecal enteropathogens in weanling kittens and assess whether administration of Enterococcus faecium SF 68 affected fecal quality.


Serum 3-BrY concentrations were measured in 18 dogs infected with S. lupi (10 with a benign nodule and 8 with a malignant nodule) and 45 healthy control dogs using electron impact ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare serum 3-BrY concentrations between dogs with S. lupi infection and healthy control dogs. A comparison between the dogs with spirocercosis based on malignancy of the nodule was also made using a Mann-Whitney U test. The significance was set at P < 0.05. In conclusion, serum 3-BrY concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with esophageal infestation with S. lupi. However, serum 3-BrY concentrations were not different between dogs with benign or malignant esophageal nodules. These results suggest that eosinophilic involvement in canine spirocercosis might have been overlooked previously. A limitation of this study was the lack of data on the prevalence of other gastrointestinal parasites. (BES) is an important cause of morbidity. Mechanical dilation may improve dysphagia, however repeated costly treatments are common and few animals regain normal function. The purpose of this study is to determine if the esophageal balloon-dilation feeding tube (EB-DFT) could provide a more effective, single-procedure alternative for the treatment of BES.


MEASUREMENT OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN IN DOGS WITH HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE. Sara Wennogle 1 , Allison Bradley 1 , Christine Olver 1 , David Twedt 1 . 1 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Hypofibrinogenemia has been described in humans with advanced liver disease and dogs with chronic hepatitis. Addition-ally, hypofibriongenemia has recently been correlated with perioperative bleeding during liver transplantation in humans. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations have not been compared among different categories of liver disease in dogs. The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate fibrinogen concentrations in dogs with various histologic types of liver disease. Fibrinogen was measured in stored citrated plasma from 41 dogs that underwent liver biopsy at Colorado State University from June 2013-November 2014. The fibrinogen assay was performed on the Destiny AMAX Plus TM analyzer and results reported in mg/dL. The reported normal reference range for this assay is 117 to 392 mg/dl. Based on the histological diagnosis dogs were grouped into one of the following categories: non-specific reactive hepatopathy/NSR (n = 13); chronic hepatitis/CH (n = 9); hydropic/vacuolar hepatopathy (n = 8); cholangiohepatitis (n = 4); neoplasia (n = 4); or other (n = 3). Groups were compared via one-way ANOVA with Tukey adjusted pairwise comparisons and significance was defined as P < 0.05. Plasma fibrinogen summary data are shown in the figure below. Dogs with histologically confirmed CH had significantly lower mean fibrinogen concentrations than other histological categories: NSR (P = 0.004), hydropic/vacuolar (P < 0.0001), cholangiohepatitis (P = 0.0001), neoplasia (P = 0.0009) or other (P = 0.0328). Mean fibrinogen levels were not different among other histological types of liver disease. Hypofibrinogenemia is more likely to occur in dogs with CH than other types of hepatobiliary disease. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations may be a useful indirect indicator of hepatic function and hypofibrinogenemia may also predispose a patient to perioperative bleeding. Further studies are needed to better characterize hypofibrinogenemia in dogs with hepatobiliary disease. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in cats with hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is unknown. Cobalamin serves as a cofactor in metabolic reactions responsible for the generation of carnitine, which promotes the oxidation of fatty acids, and the antioxidant glutathione. Cobalamin deficiency could therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of FHL. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in cats with FHL and to compare serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY) concentrations between healthy cats and cats with FHL.
Sixteen cats with cytologically diagnosed FHL were divided into two groups: Group 1: 9 cats with no definitively diagnosed underlying disease (4À11 years; 6 FS; 3 MC) and Group 2: 7 cats with a definitively diagnosed underlying disease ( . Serum folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured using an automated chemiluminescence assay. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were measured using in-house GC/MS assays. The prevalence of hypocobalaminemia (reference interval: 290À1,500 ng/L) and hypofolatemia (reference interval: 9.7À21.6 lg/L) were compared among the three groups using v 2 tests. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were compared amongst the three groups using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests, as appropriate. Statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. The prevalence of hypocobalaminemia was as follows: 6%, 13%, and 0% for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = 0.06). The prevalence of hypofolatemia was as follows: 31%, 25%, and 10% for Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.12). Serum cobalamin concentrations (mean AESD) were lower in Group 2 (606 AE 147 ng/L) than in Group 3 (2,192 AE 1,381 ng/L; P < 0.05). Serum folate concentrations (mean AE sd) were lower in Group 1 (9.6 AE 6.2 lg/L) and Group 2 (11.3 AE 6.3 lg/L) than in Group 3 (19.4 AE 7.9 lg/L; P < 0.05). Serum MMA concentrations (median [minimumÀmaximum]) were higher in Group 1 (239 [145À1,873] nmol/L) and Group 2 (559 [400À2,718] nmol/ L) than in Group 3 (147 [104À304] nmol/L; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Serum Hcy concentrations were not significantly different among the three groups (P = 0.13).
The overall prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in the cats with FHL was relatively low (19%) and was not associated with the presence of a definitely diagnosed underlying disease. However, cats suffering from FHL, with and without a definitively diagnosed underlying disease, had higher serum MMA concentrations than healthy cats, possibly indicating that some of them had cobalamin deficiency at a cellular level. The overall prevalence of hypofolatemia in cats with FHL was higher (56%) and was not associated with the presence of a definitively diagnosed underlying disease. Diagnostic cholecystocentesis is frequently performed for the evaluation of hepatobiliary disease in small animals. In our clinical experience, cytologic bactibilia is not always associated with a positive microbiologic culture and large studies describing cytologic findings of bile are lacking in the veterinary literature. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agreement between cytologic and microbiologic findings in the bile of dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.


Significant and severe fibrosis were predicted by logistic regression using 4 biological parameters. According to Metavir score, the prevalence of diagnostic targets in this selected population was: significant fibrosis: 40.1%, severe fibrosis: 25.7%. The AU-ROC curve of derived score probability was respectively 0.73 (Se = 0.80; Sp = 0.65) and 0.91 (Se = 0.89; Sp = 0.88) This study shows an interesting correlation between non-invasive methods and liver fibrosis in ST. However no single marker is ideal to predict fibrosis and a combination of several markers might be helpful to offer a diagnostic test for liver fibrosis with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Canine immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) are associated with high morbidity and risk of mortality. Thymidine kinase (TK), an enzyme important for DNA synthesis and cell division, may correlate with uncontrolled replication or regeneration following destruction. Canine C-reactive protein (c-CRP) has been used as an inflammatory disease biomarker. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) is involved in innate and adaptive immunity with hypovitaminosis D associated with increased incidence of autoimmune disease in humans. We hypothesized that plasma TK and c-CRP would be significantly higher in dogs with poorly-versus wellcontrolled ITP and IMHA and that these dogs would be vitamin D insufficient.


In dogs splenitis is rarely described. The few reported cases have been associated to splenic abscesses or pseudotumor, and systemic mycosis. The aims of this study were to define the prevalence of splenitis in dogs, describe clinical findings and outcome, characterize histological patterns of splenic inflammation and investigate possible causes.


The island of St. Kitts in the West Indies has a large feral and semi-feral dog population. Semi-feral dogs present a unique opportunity for study since they are mostly outdoors but are comparatively better taken care of compared to feral dogs. Care tends to range from minimal to adequate, though many owners use the Ministry of Agriculture Veterinary Services for their preventative medicine rather than a veterinary hospital setting. Historically, dogs on the island are endemically infected and infested with internal and ectoparasites, which bring with them numerous vector-bone diseases. Due to the high prevalence of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, it is not unusual to see prevalence of Ehrlichia canis immunity up towards 40-50%. Recently, a group of veterinarians and students from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine conducted an island-wide "field" study of semi-feral dogs, which was more advantageous than feral dogs when gathering pet information during interactions with owners.


The results suggest that antibodies against the APH-4 peptide may be useful for early detection of AP infection. Doxycycline administration using this protocol decreases C6 antibody levels to a greater extent than antibodies measured by AP peptide ELISA. Dirofilaria immitis is endemic to certain areas of the United States and causes a detrimental disease (heartworm disease) that is relatively costly to treat both financially and with regards to animal welfare. Though the Colorado climate is not conducive to year-round replication of mosquito species that carry the organism, microclimates exist wherever humans inhabit thus potentially allowing year-round transmission of D. immitis and propagation of strains from dogs entering the Colorado shelter system. Animal shelters on the northern Colorado Front Range frequently transport dogs from other states including those with a high risk of D. immitis infection. The hypothesis for this study is that shelter dogs have a higher prevalence than the general pet dog population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis antigen in the serum of dogs entering animal shelters in Northern Colorado.


The D. immitis prevalence rate of 1.5% in the shelter dogs described here is three times greater than the currently reported prevalence rate in Colorado dog populations and 2-7 times greater than the rate reported for the participating counties ( Results of this study indicate D. immitis testing should be considered as a receiving procedure in northern Colorado animal shelters for both in-area and out-of-area intakes. Results also emphasize the importance of the use of D. immitis preventives in the general population. [HH s.s.] , and H. pylori [HP]) PCR. To investigate unclassified-Helicobacter spp., partial urease and HSP60 genes were amplified with U430F/U1735 and H60F/ H60R primers, respectively, and the sequences were compared with those in the NCBI/GenBank. All Helicobacter spp. with valid published names were included for phylogenetic analysis by using CLUSTAL X2, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the neighbor-joining method.


The overall prevalence of at least one vector-borne pathogen detected in dogs, ticks and fleas were 32.7% (18/55), 40% (8/20) and 66.7% (6/9), respectively. All ticks and fleas were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis. The most prevalent pathogen in dogs was E. canis (20%), followed by The Anigen Rapid CaniV-4 Test Kit is a chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen, antibody against A. phagocytophilum / A. platys, antibody against B. burgdorferi and antibody against E. canis in canine serum, plasma or whole blood. In this report, we compared the performance of the Anigen CaniV-4 test for detection of heartworm antigen in sera from dogs having necropsy-confirmed infections and for detection of antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, B. burgdorferi and E. canis with indirect immunoflourescence assay-characterized canine samples. In all a total of 220 characterized samples were evaluated. In summary, the Anigen CaniV-4 test had very poor sensitivity for B. burgdorferi detecting only 3 of 32 IFA positive samples. The diagnostic sensitivity for other three tick-borne diseases ranged from 73 to 80%. Specificity was >90% for all four assays. In addition, the test protocol for Anigen CaniV-4 was complicated by two different sample volume requirements; two drops for heartworm analyte and 10 lL for the tick borne disease markers. Diarrhea is commonly found in shelter cats and can be caused by different factors such as stress, dietary changes and enteric parasites. Protozoans are commonly detected and most often include Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Tritrichomonas foetus (blagburni). Cyclospora cayetanensis is another enteric protozoan that can infect people but little is known about the potential for zoonotic transfer. Thus, the objectives of this study were to optimize a C. cayetanensis PCR assay and apply it to feces of cats with diarrhea in a shelter in Colorado, USA.


All three methods tested provided GFR measurements within the reported reference range for cats (1.5-3.5 mL/kg/min). However, only the recently developed Tk-GV method provided stable and precise results. This allowed detection of a difference between sequential studies suggesting superior utility for detecting interval changes in kidney function in healthy cats. Due to the heightened prevalence in the number of cats diagnosed with obstructive ureterolithiasis in recent years, surgery on the feline upper urinary tract has become more commonplace. Several techniques have been described for treatment of ureteral pathology in cats, including ureterotomy, neoureterocystostomy, ureteral stenting, and subcutaneous ureteral bypass. However, there is currently a paucity of veterinary literature documenting the success of these procedures. The objective of our study was to report on the perioperative complications and mortality rate in cats undergoing ureterotomy, neoureterocystostomy, and surgical ureteral stent placement. We also describe the long-term success of intervention, both with regards to the prevalence of persistent clinical signs of urinary tract dysfunction and the prevalence of urinary tract re-obstruction.
Medical records from the University of Pennsylvania Veterinary Teaching Hospital of all cats that underwent ureteral surgery (ureterotomy, neoureterocystostomy) or open ureteral stent placement from 2006 to 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, and imaging findings were recorded. Surgical procedure performed, perioperative complica-tions, and perioperative mortality were described. Long-term follow up was obtained via medical record review and client interview. Prevalence of chronic lower urinary tract signs, urinary tract infection, and ureteral re-obstruction were documented.


At a low pH, colonic mucosal ion transport and transepithelial resistance were decreased in the insulin resistant horses, compared to control horses. Insulin resistant horses might be predisposed to alterations in mucosal ion flux and transepithelial resistance, especially when there is a drop in pH after feeding a diet high in soluble carbohydrates. Decreased ion fluxes and TER might result in the colic and diarrhea seen in horses afflicted with EMS and PPID. These data are preliminary and further research is indicated to confirm these findings. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) has been described as the most common endocrinologic disorder of aged horses. Few studies exist that describe the epidemiological characteristics of horses with PPID. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed to determine the prevalence of PPID in a larger population, not just aged horses. The purpose of this study was to obtain epidemiological information that included age, breed, sex, clinical signs, and insulin/glucose status at initial PPID diagnosis (new cases) from a large population of horses.


Of the 515 enrolled horses, 61.7% were diagnosed with an endocrine disorder (PPID and/or hyperinsulinemia). As expected, PPID prevalence increased significantly (P < 0.001) by age and was significantly higher in horses with above-normal levels of both insulin and glucose (P = 0.014 and P = 0.016, respectively). Further, forty-three percent of PPID horses were also hyperinsulinemic. Therefore, when evaluating horses with suspected endocrine disease, at a minimum, ACTH, insulin and glucose should be evaluated. Long term studies need to be conducted in large populations of horses to further evaluate endocrinopathies in horses. It is often necessary to test for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation in the same horse. We hypothesized that results of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test would not be affected by feeding conditions or the oral sugar test (OST).


The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D 3 < 9.51 ng/ mL] was 63% (53/83) for hospitalized, 64% (38/59) for septic and 63% (15/24) for SNS foals. Serum 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 concentrations were significantly lower in septic and SNS compared to healthy foals (P = 0.001; P = 0.037). Septic foals had significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus and PTH concentrations than healthy and SNS foals (P < 0.05). Low 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 concentrations <7.09 pmol/L were associated with increased PTH concentrations in hospitalized foals. Septic foals with 25(OH)D 3 <9.51 ng/mL and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 <7.09 pmol/L were more likely to die [OR = 3.62; OR = 5.41] compared to septic foals with normal 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 concentrations [9.51-16.89 ng/mL; 7.09-16.48 pmol/L], respectively. However, vitamin D metabolites were not associated with mortality in SNS foals (P = 0.34).


Pedersen 1 , Claire Windeyer 1 , Emma Read 1 , Dan French 2 , Alastair Cribb 1 , Heath MacLeod 1 , Heidi Banse 1 . 1 University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2 TD Equine Veterinary Group, Calgary, AB, Canada Gastric ulcers are a common finding in performance horses. Recognition that ulcers may impair performance has led to investigations of prevalence in multiple performance disciplines. Previous research has focused primarily on risk factors for squamous ulcers, while the role of specific risk factors in the development of glandular ulcers remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of and identify risk factors for the development of squamous and/or glandular gastric ulcers in a population of actively competing Warmblood showjumping horses.
Continuous variables were examined using Student's t-test and categorical data examined using Chi squared test or Fisher's Exact test (SPSS). The prevalence of glandular ulceration was 72%, with 49% of horses having grade 2 or greater glandular ulceration. The prevalence of squamous ulceration was 40%, with 28% of horses having grade 2 or greater ulceration. Concurrent glandular and squamous ulceration was identified in 34% of horses.


These results support our hypothesis that septic foals exhibit CBG deficiency compared to healthy foals and adult horses. CBG-deficiency results in decreased circulating CBG-bound cortisol in foals, and if CBG-bound cortisol is critical for mediating some of cortisol's anti-inflammatory effects in foals as in other species, this CBG-deficiency could contribute to the exaggerated and potentially detrimental pro-inflammatory responses seen in some septic foals with CIRCI. Further prospective clinical and experimental studies are needed to confirm these findings in larger numbers of septic foals and to investigate the effects of CBGbound cortisol on equine leukocyte function. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) has been considered the most common endocrinologic disorder of aged horses. Few studies exist that describe the epidemiological characteristics of horses with PPID. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed to determine the prevalence of PPID in a larger population, not just aged horses. The purpose of this study was to obtain epidemiological information at initial PPID diagnosis (new cases) from a large population of horses that included age, breed, sex, clinical signs, and insulin/glucose status.


The prevalence of PPID was significantly (P < 0.015) greater among horses found to have 5 of the 11 clinical signs present: abnormal sweating, decreased athletic behavior, delayed shedding, loss of muscle mass, and weight loss. Although not statistically significant (P > 0.25), PPID prevalence was greater when three of the remaining clinical signs was present (excessive thirst, excessive urination, and laminitis) and was actually less when four of the remaining signs was absent (cresty neck, fat pads, pot belly, weight gain, and recurrent infections). Based on only the data on clinical signs, both delayed shedding and weight loss were found to be significantly associated with PPID status (P ≤ 0.002). Specifically, the odds of PPID among horses showing delayed shedding was four times that for horses not showing delayed shedding, and the odds of PPID among horses showing weight loss was approximately twice (1.9) among horses not showing weight loss. Based on the combined data on demographic variables, insulin levels, and all eleven interpretable clinical signs, age and insulin status were still seen to be significantly associated with PPID status, but only one clinical sign, delayed shedding, was found to be a significant predictor of PPID after accounting for age and insulin status. The odds ratio of PPID for horses showing delayed shedding (3.4) decreased only slightly after accounting for age and insulin status of the horses.
Based on the data from this population of horses, delayed hair coat shedding and weight loss were significant predictors of PPID status. The prevalence of PPID was also significantly greater when certain clusters of clinical signs were present. Long term studies need to be conducted to further evaluate the occurrence and progression of clinical signs in horses with PPID and other endocrine diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective evaluation of the wellbeing of a population of working horses. This study investigated wellbeing parameters in a population of working New York City carriage horses. Samples were collected over the course of a 3 day period (August 3-5, 2014). The parameters measured included fecal cortisol, salivary cortisol, and infrared thermography (IRT) of the medial canthus. The parameters used in this study have all been utilized in previous investigations to quantify stress levels in horses in a variety of settings. Collection Day 1, 2 and 3 involved 11, 7 and 8 horses, respectively. Collection days included four collection time points. At time point 1 (TP1), subjects were at rest in their stalls prior to work or the arrival of employees (06:00-08:00am EST). TP2 occurred as harnessed subjects were being hitched to carriages and prepared for work. TP3 occurred immediately after being placed in their stall at conclusion of work day. TP4 occurred 1 hour after horses were returned to their stall. Fecal cortisol samples were collected at TP1 and are used to evaluate chronic glucocorticoid levels. Salivary cortisol and IRT were collected at all four time points and reflect a more acute state of wellbeing. Preliminary evaluation of the salivary cortisol show differences among the time points (v 2 3 = 8.7; P = 0.03) with TP3 (0.96 AE 0.06 ng/mL) being greater (t 25 = 2.5; P = 0.02) than TP4 (0.77 AE 0.07 ng/mL); however, all other time point comparisons were not different (P > 0.05). For the IRT, student t-test indicated that measures between the left and right eye did not differ within time assessments (T = 141.5-144.5 12,12 ; U = 63.5-66.5; P = 0.644-0.773); therefore measures between left and right eye were averaged for comparisons of eye changes among the sampling time points. A One Way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance revealed no difference (F = 0.114; P 0.952) among time points (TP1-4) eye measures. A similar trend was not evident between the cortisol and IRT data sets. The salivary cortisol variation among TP3 and 4 is a reflection of increased metabolic activity driven by exercise rather than stress. Stress as the driving factor behind salivary cortisol increase would have resulted in a similar increase in IRT which was not observed. Evidence collected thus far indicate no significant perturbation in the state of wellbeing of this population of working horses. Colic is common in horses. Accurate and timely interpretation of clinical and laboratory data at admission are important to determine the need for surgery and the probability of survival. Many studies have evaluated clinical and laboratory findings as indicators for surgery and survival, but few studies were as comprehensive as published by Reeves et al in 1989 and 1990. 1,2 The model was based on a retrospective evaluation of medical records from horses presenting to referral institutions. The model was validated using a subpopulation of horses taken from the medical records, but was never validated in a prospective population of horses with acute colic. The purpose of this study was to prospectively validate surgical and prognosis colic prediction models. 1,2 We hypothesized that the previously developed surgical and prognosis colic model will accurately predict the probability of surgery and survival in horses presented to Louisiana State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (LSU-VTH) with acute colic.


Water in the food seems to encourage more rapid presentation of glucose to the intestine from the stomach, which may indicate an increased rate in gastric emptying. Gastric ulcer prevalence has been evaluated in many equine performance disciplines. Polo horses are a unique equine population that are often housed and exercised in groups. Therefore, ulcer occurrence and risk factors may differ in this performance discipline compared to previously studied populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastric ulceration in polo horses and identify potential risk factors for squamous and glandular ulceration.
Sixty-nine percent of horses had glandular ulcers, and 54% of horses had squamous lesions. Ulcers were dichotomized into grade ≥2 and grade <2 for statistical analysis. Thirty one percent of horses had grade ≥2 or glandular ulcers, while 37% of horses had grade ≥2 squamous ulceration. Preliminary analysis was performed using a Chi square test to identify possible risk factors for gastric ulcers. Ulcers were dichotomized into grade ≥2 and grade <2 for analysis. There was no association between the presence of grade ≥2 squamous and glandular ulceration (P = 0.07). Horses performing at a >6 goal level had a lower prevalence of glandular (P = 0.04) and squamous (P = 0.02) ulcers than those performing at < 6 goal. Paddock turnout was also associated with a decreased risk of squamous ulcers (P = 0.03).
In this study, only housing factors and performance level were associated with the presence of gastric ulcers. The increased prevalence of squamous and glandular ulceration in low goal polo horses suggests that gastric ulceration may be associated with reduced performance. Equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) has been reported in 50-100% of performance horses in various studies while the prevalence of equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) has been reported as being between 30-65% in a number of different horse types. To date little information is published on the prevalence of either in feral horses. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalences of ESGD and EGGD between feral and domesticated horses presenting to an abattoir for slaughter.
Horses included in this study were randomly selected during two separate visits to a certified abattoir in the United Kingdom (UK) between the months of June and August. Horses were classified as feral on the basis that they were free ranging with little or no human interaction, and classed as domesticated on the basis that they had been under the care of humans with a designated purpose as assessed by an abattoir employee. The feral population originated from the Dartmoor and Exmoor regions of the UK. History on the horses such as age, sex, breed or discipline for the horses was not available. Once classified as feral or domesticated horses were slaughtered in accordance with appropriate UK legislation. Following slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was removed and the stomachs separated by an abattoir employee. Each stomach was then dissected along the dorsal plane from the lower oesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter and rinsed with water. Photographs were captured for each stomach and numbered for future analysis. Grading of the gastric lesions was performed by a single investigator blinded to the group allocation of the horse. Lesions were graded using the four point EGUS council system with the squamous and glandular regions of the stomachs graded separately. Horses were dichotomously classified as being ESGD or EGGD positive or negative if the assigned grade for the squamous of glandular mucosa was ≥ II/IV or ≤ I/IV, respectively. A Chi-Squared test was used to compare the prevalence of ESGD and EGGD between feral and domesticated horses. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.
A total of 60 domesticated horses and 29 feral horses were randomly selected. Data from two feral and nine domesticated horses was excluded due to inconclusive photographic documentation. Fifty-one domesticated and 27 feral horses were included in the final analysis. The lesion distribution for ESGD and EGGD are shown in the table below. When dichotomously classified, ESGD was present in 22.2% and 60.8% of feral and domesticated horses, respectively (P = 0.001). Similarly, EGGD was present in 29.6% and 70.6% of feral and domesticated horses, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). The results of this study suggest that the prevalences of both ESGD and EGGD are higher in domesticated horses than feral horses. While it is well recognized that the risk of ESGD increases with increased intensity of management this report is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report documenting that a similar effect may be present for EGGD. The purpose of this report is to describe a method of intragastric pH measurement using a pH probe connected to a continuous data logger that is fitted in a retrograde manner into an endoscopically placed, indwelling percutaneous gastrotomy tube (PEG) in the horse.


This data may aid in the development of an effective vaccine and strategic vaccination protocols for Lyme disease in horses. Pneumonia is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in foals <6 months of age. In contrast, pulmonary immunocompeteny in adult horses appears more robust given resistance to the same diseases that cause clinical manifestations in foals. We speculated that there would be quantitative and qualitative differences in the cell populations recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) that could provide insight into the progressive age-related gain in immunocompetency. Serial BALF was collected from a cohort of healthy foals at 1 week; 1, 2, 6, 12 and 18 months of age. BALF from foals was then compared to BALF collected from healthy adult horses. Cellular morphologic evaluation and 300 cell differentials were performed on cytocentrifuged BALF samples. Foals had significantly higher percentages of macrophages than adult horses at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months of age; this difference was no longer noted at 12 months of age. Foals had significantly lower percentages of lymphocytes in BALF than adult horses (week 1, months 1, 2, and 6). Furthermore, foals had a significantly higher percentage of macrophages compared with adults, characterized by a progressive increase in percentage of macrophages concurrent with an increase in age. To better define potential qualitative differences in pulmonary-alveolar macrophages (PAMs) between adult horses and foals, a longitudinal analysis of reactive intermediate activity between adult and foal PAMs was performed with samples from a subset of foals (n = 3) at age 1 week, 1, 6 and 12 months. In vitro measurements of superoxide and peroxynitrite were obtained using oxidation of dihydroethidium (DHE) and dihydrorhodamine (DHR) as indicators, respectively. PAMs were gated and sorted as live cells expressing CD172a, seeded in triplicate into 96-well plates, and allowed to adhere for 2 hours. PAMs were then stimulated with LPS (2 lg/mL) + IFNc (10 ng/mL); opsonized zymosan (0.5 mg/mL) or R. equi antigen (75 lg/mL) and incubated at 37°C for 30 hours. DHE or DHR was added 30 minutes prior to fluorimetry (BMG Labtech FluoStar Omega). For all stimulants, we documented an age-related progressive increase in production of superoxide and peroxynitrite with foals exhibiting lower levels of reactive intermediates at week 1 compared to month 12 (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results reveal a decreasing shift in percentage of PAMs in BALF as foals age along with a concurrent age-related increase in reactive intermediate production by PAMs. These results support the notion that the pulmonary cell population changes as foals age, with a large percentage of macrophages having decreased capacity for reactive intermediate production early in life. Collectively, these findings are consistent with age-related susceptibility of foals to pneumonia caused by the macrophage-tropic bacterium, R. equi. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi infection in horses, also called pigeon fever, has not been reported in Alabama. Our previous studies had surprisingly identified positive synergistic hemolysis inhibition (SHI) titers in a number of healthy horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of C. pseudotuberculosis in this non-endemic population; and to determine the association of detectable titers with exposure to small ruminants with or without history of caseous lymphadenitis, or with previous travel to endemic states.
The high prevalence of positive titers in a naive population questions the accuracy of the SHI antibody titer test. Possible false positives caused by cross-reaction with antibodies against phospholipases from soil Corynebacterium spp. or C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis warrants further investigation. Equine herpes virus type 1-induced myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is a neurologic disease of horses that occurs as a complication of infection. Neurologic signs result from endothelial cell damage causing vasculitis and ischemic insult to the central nervous system. This disease causes considerable animal suffering and economic loss for the horse industry. Genetic variation in the virus explains some, but not all, of the disease's occurrence.


NBI imaging of the airways was easily performed in standing sedated horses. The significance of the increased tracheal vascularity in heaves remains to be ascertained. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex is a major problem in veal calves rearing units. Presence of lung lesions and inflammation was shown to negatively affect subsequent growth. Ultrasonography is an ante-mortem diagnostic tool that can be used to assess the extent of lung lesions. The first objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of ultrasonographic evidence of lung consolidation in veal calves metaphylactically treated with tildipirosin. The second objective was to quantify the impact of lung consolidation on average daily weight gain (ADG) until weaning.
Prevalence of FPT was 55% (114/209) in calves. At D12, 13% (26/209) of calves had lung consolidation. The presence of consolidation at D30 was observed in 27% (29/109) of calves in the TILD group and 27% (27/100) in PLAC group. Calves with lung consolidation at D12 had greater odds of lung consolidation at D30 (OR = 4.35; 95% CI: 1.79-10.6; P < 0.01) than calves without consolidation at D12. Calves with FPT had greater odds of consolidation (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.19-4.65; P = 0.02) than calves without FPT. Treatment (TILD vs PLAC) was not associated with the odds of lung consolidation at day D30 (P = 0.91). Least square means of ADG2 in calves with lung consolidation was greater than in calves without consolidation (consolidation: 2.12 lbs/d, SEM = 0.06; no consolidation: 1.97 lbs/d, SEM = 0.08; P = 0.03).
In conclusions, this study showed that ultrasonographic evidence of lung consolidation in veal calves 1 month after arrival can be predicted by the assessment of the FPT and by the presence of lung consolidation 12 days after arrival. Metaphylatic use of Tildipirosin at D12 doesn't decrease the prevalence of lung consolidation at D30. Surprisingly, the presence of lung consolidation was associated with an increased ADG during the second month of feeding which can appear as counter-intuitive. Further research should be performed to understand this finding. A systematic search was performed and medical records were reviewed for 18 adult (≥ 2 years) beef animals diagnosed with frontal sinusitis over a 15-year period. Information on previously listed parameters was evaluated.
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Disclosures: Disclosures to report. This study was funded by grants from the NSW Cat Protection Society and the Australian Companion Animal Health Foundation, IRMA Project ID 1822469. Canine parvoviruses (CPVs) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are strains of Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. CPV2a-c can infect and replicate in both canids and felids. Using conventional PCR, a recent study reported a high prevalence of fecal shedding of CPVs among asymptomatic shelter cats in the UK, identifying cats as a potential reservoir of infection.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fecal shedding of CPVs in asymptomatic shelter-housed cats in Australia. One hundred stool samples from unvaccinated cats housed in a dual canine/feline shelter were collected and stored at À80°C until testing. Viral DNA was extracted from feces by homogenization of a 10% w/v solution of feces in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), boiling of the supernatant after centrifugation, chilling on ice and repeat centrifugation. To identify PCR inhibition in fecal DNA extracts, dilutions (1:10 and 1:20) of supernatant were spiked with feline genomic DNA (138 ng) and tested using a PCR amplifying the feline GAPDH gene. Feline GAPDH was amplified in all spiked fecal samples at a 1:20 dilution, and in 99 samples at a 1:10 dilution. PCR inhibition of GAPDH in one sample at 1:20 dilution was abolished at a 1:50 dilution.
In contrast to results of a UK shelter, fecal shedding of CPV by asymptomatic shelter-housed cats was not detected in this study and the prevalence of FPV shedding was low. Future studies to screen for Carnivore Protoparvoviruses using quantitative PCR assays are warranted to rule out low-level shedding undetectable by conventional PCR.
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Some populations of geese and swans in Europe and North America have undergone dramatic growth during recent decades and they are now larger than any time in known history. [1, 2] At the same time, outside the breeding season these birds have increasingly abandoned their natural foraging habitats in favour of croplands, meadows and turfs. [3] This and a generally reduced level of fearfulness have resulted in there now being more geese, close to more people, than ever before over large and densely populated areas in the Northern Hemisphere. This, in turn, has sparked conflicts with respect to crop damage, bird strikes at airports, fouling of drinking and recreational waters, eutrophication of wetlands, and degradation of natural vegetation. Although there are well-described local cases for most of these conflicts, their prevalence and consequences over larger spatial and temporal scales have only recently been reviewed comprehensively and critically. [3] [4] [5] A recurring issue in this context is geese and other waterfowl as sources of infections (e.g. [6] ). This is true for agriculture and food production, but also for human health via transmission of zoonotic diseases. [7] Interestingly, this is a rather recent concern, illustrated by it not even being mentioned in the influential monograph Man and Wildfowl by Janet Kear that was published in 1990. [8] Still, such worries are understandable, as it is commonplace to observe large flocks of geese and swans grazing and defecating in pastures and in fields producing food for livestock and humans. This behaviour brings these birds physically close to livestock during parts of the year, sometimes also close to poultry. Another concern is that large goose flocks for prolonged periods roost on lakes and wetlands where livestock drink and humans extract drinking water and swim. [5] On top of this, most goose populations are highly mobile, on a daily as well as a seasonal basis, making them potential disease vectors at short and medium spatial scales.

Viral diseases

Avian paramyxovirus/Newcastle disease Newcastle disease (also 'avian pneumoencephalitis' and 'pseudofowl pest') is one of the more prevalent and economically devastating viral infections in the poultry industry, and it is widely spread over the world and endemic to numerous countries. [14, 15] There are 12 serotypes in the genus Avulavirus (avian paramyxoviruses, APMV) in the family Paramyxoviridae. Newcastle disease is caused by the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), which occurs in both highly virulent (velogenic) and low virulent (lentogenic) forms. Velogenic strains cause massive die-offs in poultry farms, but are rarely detected in nature, with only few outbreaks recorded, primarily in cormorants. [16] Outbreaks of Newcastle disease are not known in wild waterfowl, but wild swans and geese are important asymptotic hosts of the more benign lentogenic APMV-1 strains (e.g. [17] ). APMV-1 does not constitute a threat to human health, but it can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms, which have mainly been reported in people working with infected poultry. [18] The other 11 serotypes of APMV do not cause Newcastle disease sensu stricta and are not considered here, although some of them have been associated with disease in poultry and other captive birds. [17] Virological studies of APMV-1 in waterfowl (thus also including ducks) typically report a prevalence between 0.5 and 2.5% based on virus isolation (reviewed in [11] ), whereas serological (antibodybased) studies generally report higher frequency; in swans and geese frequently a seroprevalence of 40-60% (n=1014 [19] , n=130 [20] , n=858 [21] ). Muzyka et al. [22] reported on virus isolation in ca. 1800 samples from Ukraine from all seasons (mute swan Cygnus olor, whooper swan Cygnus cygnus, greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons, greylag goose Anser anser, and red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis), but were able to isolate APMV-1 only in two greater white-fronted geese sampled in winter. German studies based on serology report either negative results (greylag goose [23] ), 6-8% seroprevalence in breeding Canada geese Branta canadensis, [24] 14% in Canada geese in fall, [25] and 45% in greater whitefronted geese in October. [20] The only studies from the Nordic countries did not find any APMV-1 antibodies in greylag geese (Norway, spring [26] and Finland, fall [27] ). Most studies of Newcastle disease have been based on cloacal swab samples. However, already Vickers and Hanson [28] and Wobeser [11] pointed out that it is far from certain that this is the best method to detect the virus, and that studies based on faecal swabs most likely underestimate APMV-1 prevalence in wild waterfowl. Contributing to the uncertainties related to AMPV-1 estimation is the fact that waterfowl can be infected by several different viruses simultaneously; for instance, Wille et al. [29] presented results suggesting that the dynamics of AMPV-1 in mallards Anas platyrhynchos were affected by co-circulation of AIV and avian coronavirus.
The infection is known to spread between farmed and wild birds, but its epidemiology remains enigmatic. Waterfowl seem to be the virus's only reservoir between outbreaks. [11] The faecal-oral pathway is probably the most common infection route, but transmission from mother to young through the egg also occurs. To date very few studies have addressed its occurrence in Europe, as it is currently not perceived as a threat to the poultry industry. In eggs from Canada geese breeding in Germany, Bönner et al. [24] found an antibody seroprevalence of 13% in 2002 (n = 107), but none (0%) the year after (n = 181). A Polish survey 2006-2013 of liver tissue from mute swan, greylag goose, bean goose Anser fabalis and mallard showed presence of anatid herpesvirus in 73% of 131 sampled birds and isolated three viruses. [38] Collectively, these studies suggest that anatid herpesvirus 1 is widespread among asymptomatic waterfowl in Europe. Since duck plague is a potentially devastating disease and because the etiological agent likely occurs in swans and geese in the Nordic countries, it is warranted to better monitor its distribution in space and time. In order to prevent outbreaks, domestic poultry should not be allowed to get in direct contact with wild waterfowl, and it is further advised that they do not share water for drinking.

West Nile virus

Detecting viremic birds in nature is rare, and most studies rely on serology, either ELISA or virus neutralization assays. Seroprevalence for WNV is generally low in European studies of wild birds (1-10%, reviewed in [46] ). The only WNV screening study of birds from the Nordic countries showed very low seroprevalence (0.1%) among the 104 sampled species, and no signs of exposure to WNV in the seven tested waterfowl species. [47] However, there are several reasons to include WNV in the present review. Firstly, WNV antibodies have been found in mute swans in Poland, Germany and Serbia. [46, 48, 49] Secondly, the virus has spread steadily northwards, a process likely exacerbated by climate warming. [50] Thirdly, several of the mosquitoes that are competent vectors for WNV are widespread and common in the Nordic countries (Culex pipiens, Coquillettidia richiardii and at least 14 other species), and other species are expanding northwards (e.g. Aedes albopinctus [51] ). Fourthly, swans and geese occur mainly in wet habitats where also mosquitoes are common, increasing the risk of virus amplification and subsequent spread. Finally, small WNV outbreaks with 10-40% fatality rates in humans with neurological symptoms have occurred as close as Romania, Serbia and Russia. [46, 52, 53] At present, WNV is not a health issue in the Nordic countries, which is also mirrored by the relative few studies conducted hitherto. As demonstrated for WNV in North America, however, the situation may change rapidly depending on host, vector or climatological factors. Consequently, initiating surveillance for WNV in wild birds including waterfowl is a wise means to monitor any change to this situation.

Avian influenza virus/AI/AIV

The avian influenza virus (AIV) (genus Influenzavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae) is a genetically variable, single stranded RNA virus. It has a large host range, including mammals (and humans), but the largest diversity of virus subtypes and genetic lineages is found in birds. The natural reservoir of the virus is wild waterbirds, in particular dabbling ducks, but also to a lesser extent swans, geese, diving ducks, and shorebirds. [54, 55] Naturally occurring AIV subtypes are almost exclusively classified as low pathogenic (LPAIV), which means that they do not cause significant disease either in their wild hosts or in gallinaceous poultry. In dabbling ducks, LPAIV show an annual pattern of low prevalence in spring and summer, and a marked peak in autumn when prevalence may reach high values (20-30%) in the Northern Hemisphere. [55, 56] Less is known about LPAIV in other waterbirds, but geese and swans are infected with LPAIV, though at a general lower prevalence rate. [54] Some strains have the capacity to transmit from waterfowl to gallinaceous poultry, most notably the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In gallinaceous poultry, LPAIV can mutate into a highly pathogenic form (HPAIV), which causes devastating disease. The increased virulence is largely determined by mutations at the receptor binding site of the haemagglutinin molecule, leading to systemic, rather than localized infection. A driving force for this switch is a high mutation rate combined with high densities of immuno-naive hosts. Once established in a poultry facility, HPAIV is highly contagious and may develop into local, regional or even intercontinental epizootics in poultry. [54, 57] AIV can also transmit to mammals and humans, but as birds and mammals differ in which receptor types that are predominately expressed on cells, and in which tissue types the receptors are found, [58, 59] the capacity of an AIV to establish and maintain itself in mammal hosts is limited. However, once an AIV has adapted to a mammalian host it may spread and become epidemic in it. It is important to note that AIVs can affect humans and animals in two ways: either via direct transmission (such as HPAI H5N1, which although it is rare as a spill-over infection is associated with high mortality in humans) or via contributing novel antigenic properties through reassortment of avian and mammal AIVs in co-infected hosts (such as the pig, which expresses both avian and mammal receptors). Events of the latter type may in the worst case spark new flu pandemics.
Up to recent years, the conventional wisdom has been that HPAIVs are restricted to poultry, and do not circulate widely among wild birds. This notion has been challenged lately, partly as a result of the ongoing epizootic of HPAI H5N1 and associated reassortant viruses in Eurasia, Africa and North America (e.g. [60] ). The severity of HPAIV infection varies among wild birds, with systemic infection and high mortality in most species, and subclinical to asymptomatic infections in some waterfowl, particularly in dabbling ducks. This change in epidemiology is not fully understood, but contributing factors may include partial protection from previous LPAIV infections and adaptations of the virus associated with reduced virulence. In any case, migratory waterfowl may act as reservoirs and of HPAIV and contribute to dispersal via migration (e.g. [61] [62] [63] ). Health concerns for poultry, livestock and humans are the main reason for the huge body of research on AIVs, including their main avian hosts. The mallard and closely related dabbling ducks (American black duck Anas rubripes, northern pintail Anas acuta) are the model species in this research. This situation presents a challenge for the present review, as susceptibility to AIV varies considerably among waterfowl species. In a meta-analysis based on studies involving ca. 45,000 sampled waterfowl, Olsen et al. [54, Table 1] found that AIV prevalence is 10 times higher in dabbling ducks such as mallard, American black duck and northern pintail, than it is in geese and swans. The literature on AIV in swans and geese is relatively sparse, but it appears that swans and at least some goose species face high mortality when exposed to HPAIV. [54, [64] [65] [66] [67] For example, a single outbreak in China reduced the global population of wild bar-headed geese Anser indicus by 10%. [68] If this is a general pattern, swans and geese rather become poor reservoirs and vectors of HPAIV (cf. [61] ), as very ill or dead birds do not fly far.
Studies of LPAIV in swans and geese generally demonstrate very low prevalence of infection, often in the range of 0-3% in fresh faeces (Canada goose; [6] mute swan; [21, 69] several species [70] [71] [72] ). On the other hand, data on seroprevalence suggest that many swans and geese eventually do become exposed to LPAIV: 0-14% in Canada goose, [6, 24, 73] 45% in mute swan, [21] 63% in pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus, [74] and >95% in Emperor goose Chen canagica. [72] Lambrecht et al. [69] studied 520 mute swans in Belgium 2007-2010 and found that seroprevalence varied with age, being higher in adults than in juveniles (54 and 16%, respectively), and furthermore that seroprevalence rate varied with sampling season and whether birds utilized stagnant or flowing waterbodies. How LPAIV infection affects swans and geese in the wild is, however, still poorly understood. Van Gils and co-workers [75] found that infected Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii reduced feeding and delayed spring migration departure, but this study was based on two birds only. Conversely, in a study of thousands of greater white-fronted geese, Kleijn et al. [76] did not find any difference in movement behaviour between infected and non-infected birds. These patterns have been interpreted very differently; some researchers argue that geese and swans are important to AIV dynamics in general. Others, for example Harris et al. [6] , argue that Canada geese play only a minor, if any, role as a reservoir for LPAIV in nature. Another argument why geese may be less important is the limited persistence of AIV in faeces and low viral shedding following experimental infection.
Although the importance of dabbling ducks as hosts, reservoirs and short-distance dispersers of AIV is undisputed, also in the Nordic countries, [70] the role of swans and geese in these processes is still poorly understood (e.g. [77] ). For example, virus prevalence ( [72] ; data from four goose species in Alaska) as well as seroprevalence ( [74] ; pink-footed goose) have been found to be higher in spring than in fall, which is opposite to the seasonal pattern in dabbling ducks. Although this suggests that AIV dynamics in geese and swans may differ significantly from those in ducks, caution is warranted as the former findings are based on a much smaller body of literature, and may be obscured by other factors, such as the seroconversion rate and maintenance of detectable serum antibodies. Furthermore, previous exposure to LPAIV may affect susceptibility and disease severity of HPAIV infections, as has been noted in both experimental [78] [79] [80] and field-based investigations. [81, 82] Hence, increased monitoring of AIV in geese and swans is called for, not least since they occur close to agriculture (crops, livestock, and poultry) and humans. Keeping wild and farmed birds separate from each other is a wise preventive measure for AIV. Regardless, HPAIV in wild geese and swans is not perceived as a health concern for humans, unless one is in direct contact with infected birds.


Salmonella. The genus Salmonella is distributed worldwide and due to its predominantly clonal population structure it displays a large number of serovars, some of which have the capacity to cause intestinal disease in humans and animals, including birds, by the faecal-oral transmission route. [83] There is often limited host species specificity, and the disease is considered zoonotic (typically acquired by contaminated food). In wild birds, salmonellosis is known from a wide variety of species, but mainly known to cause severe disease and mortality from septicaemia in small passerines, [84, 85] whilst many other species carry asymptomatic infection (e.g. gulls [86, 87] ). Because of its relevance to the poultry industry, including risk of alimentary infections in humans, quite a large number of studies has been carried out on its epidemiology in wild birds. Further, there are recommendations within the poultry industry to avoid or minimize contact between wild birds and domestic poultry. In particular, the presence of infected gulls and passerines has been suggested as a risk factor for salmonellosis in domestic animals. [85] Wild birds are not considered a main source of infection for livestock, though, instead feed contamination and recycling among farm animals are often the source. [83] A link to human activities has been suggested, and when S. typhimurium bacteria were found in mute swans in the UK the authors concluded that the birds had come from a contaminated environment related to human sewage overflow and dirty surface water. [88] Furthermore, Salmonella has been isolated from droppings of Canada geese (0-8% except one site where the prevalence was 20%, n = 50) in UK parklands, and it has been shown that Salmonella bacteria in Canada goose droppings can multiply and survive for up to one month in this environment. [89] However, a Norwegian study of waterfowl shot in mainly densely populated areas reported very low prevalence of Salmonella positive samples (1.4% of carcasses, but all droppings negative, n = 182 [90] ), and another Norwegian study found only one infected Canada goose in a summarized post-mortem covering the years 1969-2000 (n = 40). [91] Similarly, Lillehaug and co-workers [26] found just one greylag goose positive for S. diarizona (n = 100), which is in accordance with a Swedish study of faecal samples from 200 Canada geese shot during the hunting season, in which none turned out positive for Salmonella spp. [92] Similarly, a German study of wintering brent geese Branta bernicla, barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, greylag geese, greater white-fronted geese, pinkfooted geese, and bean geese, found no Salmonella positive faecal samples at all. [93] Neither did a German study of Canada goose eggs (n = 289) find any Salmonella spp. [24] Predominantly negative results have been obtained in US studies of Canada geese, where 0% (n = 318) and 0.01% (n = 449) respectively of the samples from non-migratory Canada geese were positive for Salmonella spp. [94, 95] Likewise, in a New Zealand study of Canada geese (n = 80) and black swans Cygnus atratus (n = 80) all samples were negative. [96] Refsum alone and together with co-workers [85, 90] proposed that the importance of waterfowl in spreading Salmonella bacteria is limited, except for birds resident in areas highly contaminated by human waste or domestic animal manure. However, Gorham and Lee [5] rather emphasized the uncertainty of assessments of potential risks, especially in relation to Canada geese. There are no studies directly linking outbreaks of salmonellosis in humans, livestock or domestic poultry to the presence of swans and geese or their faeces. However, the absence of such findings may partly be a result of existing biosecurity routines, and hence it is nevertheless wise to apply precautionary principles and ensure that domestic poultry do not get in contact with, or share pasture or water access with, wild waterfowl. The absence of reports about outbreaks in ruminants linked to waterfowl indicates that in practice the presence of such birds on grasslands and pasture grounds, which is a common phenomenon in many regions, may not constitute a major risk factor for Salmonella infection in livestock. Furthermore, the presence of geese in urban parks and on beaches does not, based on the reasoning above, appear to constitute any major human health risk with respect to Salmonella.
Migratory geese frequently fly between rural and urban areas. In rural areas where livestock concentration and the prevalence of infection with virulent strains of E. coli are both high, geese may be exposed to such bacteria and become infected, and later disperse the strain. Wherever faecal contamination occurs, E. coli may be present.
Prevalence of E. coli in Canada goose droppings in parks in the USA varied considerably among seasons (as low as 2% in the cold season, and up to 94% in the warmest months; n = 397), and further the proportion of E. coli with human virulence factors was low (2%). [99] The authors concluded that Canada goose faeces do not pose a significant risk to human health, but that it is nevertheless wise to minimize contact with faecal material and to remove shoes before entering homes. It has been shown that Canada geese can be a relevant source of E.coli on beaches in North America [100, 101] and that a low number of these birds carry enteropathogenic E. coli (8%, n = 90), [102] but this has not been linked to disease in humans. In a study of faecal samples from 200 Canada geese shot in Sweden all were negative for VTEC 0157, a strain responsible for potentially severe disease in humans. [92] However, a study of black swans and Canada geese in New Zealand showed an E. coli prevalence of 94-95% (regardless of strain). [96] A British survey of 12 sites revealed a large variation in presence of E. coli, ranging from below 10% at some sites to 100% in others (n = 50). [89] As water quality in lakes and rivers can be affected by high levels of coliform bacteria, it is highly relevant to try to establish the source of such faecal contamination. Hence, several studies have studied E. coli isolates from a host species perspective. Two Canadian studies showed that isolates were relatively host-specific and that E. coli strains from geese totally dominated in faecal material from geese (87.5% (n = 7) and 79.7% (n = 44) respectively [103, 104] ). A Dutch study of E. coli concentrations in faeces from geese and other birds on recreational waters indicated that gull faeces contained higher concentrations of E. coli than did goose faeces (greylag goose; n = 25) [105] and a study of recreational waters in the USA revealed that human faecal material was as common a source of contamination as was goose faecal material, especially after rainfall. [106] However, geese can also carry E. coli strains of human origin (12.5%), and humans and dairy cattle can carry strains of goose origin (2.9 and 14.3% respectively [103] . In a recent study, Kuczkowski and co-workers [107] reported both geographical and interspecific differences (mute swans (n = 37), greylag geese (n = 61) and Canada geese (n = 33) in Poland and the Netherlands, respectively) in the pathogenicity of the E. coli strains identified. An important question to ask is whether E. coli constitutes a normal part of the gastrointrestinal flora of geese and swans, or whether high prevalence of this bacterium in itself is a sign of transmission from anthropogenic sources.
In summary, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions about the risk of transmission of E. coli from geese and swans to livestock or humans, other than that in most cases the E. coli found show low prevalence of human virulence factors and is hence not an important source of zoonotic infection. Nevertheless, direct human contact with goose and swan faeces should be avoided in general.
Snow geese Chen caerulescens can be infected with the bacterium but survive, [115] although mortality in this species is high in some outbreaks, also during migration. [116] Outbreaks have also included Canada geese. [116] Greater white-fronted geese show a low prevalence of antibodies (< 5%, n = 590) at breeding sites in Alaska. [117] In the latter study the authors were not able to isolate P. multocida from any oral, nasal or cloacal swabs analysed (n = 1227), and they hence concluded that these geese were unlikely to be important carriers of the bacterium, [117] although it has been identified in samples from several goose and swan species. [114] Investigations in the USA have evaluated if wetlands per se can function as a primary reservoir for the bacterium between outbreaks, as they will inevitably become contaminated with P. multocida during an outbreak. However, this seems not to be the case, as no positive sediment samples (n = 440) were found by Samuel et al. [118] . It has been hypothesized that P. multocida occurs latently in healthy waterfowl acting as mechanical vectors, [116] and in the USA the snow goose has been proposed as a relevant carrier species.
Various species of Campylobacter have been isolated from faecal samples and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy geese in many different geographical locations, but it is not clear if waterfowl have a significant role in zoonotic spread. [119] One study implied an outbreak of Campylobacter infection in humans to be connected to pink-footed geese staging in the vicinity of a water reservoir (from which untreated drinking water was taken), but no faecal samples from the geese were analysed. [121] A German study of eggs (n = 289) from Canada geese did not find any Campylobacter at all in the embryonic tissue, [24] which was not surprising as vertical transmission of Campylobacter via eggs does not occur in any bird species, whereas a Swedish study of 200 Canada geese shot during the hunting season found 15% of the samples positive for Campylobacter spp. [92] Similar prevalence levels (12-23%) were reported from Barnacle goose faeces in Finland in summer (n = 924). [122] Modern typing methods are necessary for establishing links between isolates of different origin. [119, 123] For example, when looking at Campylobacter populations in wild geese and freeranging poultry on the same farm, Colles et al. [124] found that although a large proportion of the Canada and greylag geese included did carry C. jejuni (50.2%, n = 331), these bacteria were from a genetically different population than the ones identified from free-ranging broilers sampled at the same location. Hence, the Campylobacter isolated from geese appeared host specific, and their contribution as a source of infection to humans and farm animals were most likely minor. [122, 124] Similarly, the prevalence of C. jejuni in non-migratory Canada geese (n = 318) in the USA was reported as ranging from 5.0% to 16%, but the strain types from these geese were not previously encountered among human clinical cases or farm animals. [94] A Swedish study of migrating brent geese indicates that prevalence of Campylobacter may be rather low (one out of four sampled geese tested positive), and the authors stressed that it is unknown if this particular strain, and other isolates from the same study, are transmissible to humans or domestic animals. [125] In a study on wild birds and domestic cattle it was concluded that although these birds, mainly shorebirds and barnacle geese, shared a common environment during the grazing season, the different host species largely carried their own types of Campylobacter. From this, Waldenström et al. [126] drew the conclusion that between-species transmission is rare. This is in accordance with Llarena and co-workers, [122] who concluded that barnacle geese are probably an infrequent source of campylobacteriosis in humans, a conclusion which can most likely be extended also to other goose species.
Yersinia. Some bacteria of the genus Yersinia, namely Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, are considered pathogenic for animals and humans, symptoms mainly being gastrointestinal illness. [109] Geese have been shown to carry the strain of Y. enterocolitica that causes disease in humans, but also several non-pathogenic species and strains. For example, Niskanen and co-workers [129] found Yersina spp. in 42 out of 105 faecal samples from barnacle geese, but none in brent geese, Canada geese, greylag geese, or mute swans (seven, one, one and one samples respectively). Many of these were, however, nonpathogenic species of Yersinia, or non-pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The authors commented that as these barnacle geese were sampled on migration they had most likely become infected at a previous location, and then acted as long-distance dispersers. Furthermore, they concluded that, because of the low prevalence of pathogenic strains isolated, birdsincluding geeseare not likely to be a direct source of Yersinia infections in humans. [129] Clostridium botulinum/avian botulism. Botulism, caused by neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, affects a wide range of birds and mammals, including humans. The symptoms typically include paralysis. The disease is found globally and is usually acquired via oral intake of the toxin, orespecially in birdsintestinal growth of the bacteria, which then produce toxins in the guts. Different strains of C. botulinum produce different toxins, usually referred to as types A through G. Avian botulism is considered the most significant disease of migratory waterfowl in North America, [130] and is caused by other strains than human botulism.

Antimicrobial resistance

Resistance to one or more pharmaceutical antibiotic substances is not an infectious disease per se, but it is often treated as such for practical reasons as they pose large problems in human and animal health. There are a number of different types of resistance mechanisms, which will however not be covered in detail here. Use and misuse of antibiotics, in humans, domestic animals and agriculture, are the main drivers in the development of antibiotic resistance. [138, 139] It is generally acknowledged that antibiotic resistance is a rapidly emerging threat to human health, causing millions of deaths every year as a result of failure to treat common infections. [140] The prevalence of antibiotic resistance varies considerably among countries and continents, [141, 142] much depending on whether use of antibiotics is prudent or not.
Geese, and other birds, may become colonized by antibiotic resistant bacteria just like they pick up other bacteria present in their environment. It has hence been hypothesized that birds can act as amplifiers or vectors, carrying these bacteria and in the end transmitting them to livestock via pastures and to humans by contamination of human food or water sources. [143] Several studies on the prevalence of various bacteria in geese include analysis of faecal samples with reference to antibiotic resistance.
Conversely, Middleton and Ambrose, [144] who analysed E. coli in Canada geese in the USA, found that more than 95% of their isolates (n = 47) was resistant to a variety of antibiotic substances, such as ampicillin, cephalothin, and sulfathiazole. Fallacara and co-workers, [95] who studied Canada geese and other waterfowl in the USA, identified antibiotic resistance in some of the E. coli and C. jejuni strains in their samples (specific figures for goose samples not presented). Another US study focusing on nonmigratory Canada geese found very different levels of antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolated from faeces, depending on the type of agricultural land the geese inhabited, in relation to livestock manure. The authors reported low or zero levels of resistance in samples from geese in no contact with liquid livestock manure, whereas geese in direct contact with liquid swine manure had a significantly higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. [143] A Japanese study on E. coli in Whistling swans Cygnus columbianus also revealed a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance (279 E. coli isolates from 984 swans, of which 80% (n = 244) of the drug resistant isolates showed resistance to more than one antibiotic). [145] Similarly, Hatha and co-workers, [146] who sampled barnacle geese (n = 30) at breeding sites in Svalbard, found 100% resistance to colistin in their E-coli isolates, modest levels of resistance to ampicillin (39%) and amoxicillin (12%), and low levels against tetracycline (7%) and ceftazidime (2%), but the bacteria were still susceptible to a number of other antibiotic substances. Birds in this study winter in the UK, and the authors speculated that antibiotic resistance genes may have been picked up in that environment, rather than in the more pristine Svalbard. Recently, Kuczkowski and co-workers [107] found a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains in birds sampled in Poland compared to geese in the Netherlands, and hypothesized that this may be a result of difference in proximity to human dwellings. However, also other explanations are possible, such as the general level of antimicrobial resistance in the countries in question, and also in the regions where these goose populations spend time during breeding and migration.


Giardia duodenalis (synonyms G. lamblia and G. intestinalis), is a flagellate protozoan that may contaminate water as well as food. It causes diarrhoea in humans, and it may also affect growth and cognitive function in children. [158] In Poland, Giardia duodenalis has been found in greylag geese (prevalence 29%; n = 34), mute swans (12%; n = 33), and domestic geese (9.1%; n = 11). [155] It has also been found in greylag geese and domestic geese in Hungary. [151] Giardia sp. has been found in Canada geese in the USA [150, 157] and in bean geese in Hungary. [151] Some studies have reported high concentrations, which might indicate infection in these birds, while Majewska et al. [155] reported lower concentrations, suggesting that those birds were merely mechanical vectors.
Due to high prevalence of Giardia, geese and swans become suspects of transferring the pathogen to humans, but this potential risk is still not well understood. Further studies based on the newest taxonomical knowledge are needed to establish whether Giardia in geese belong to genotype A or B, thus being capable of causing disease in humans.


Human microsporidiosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed persons and leads to intestinal infections with diarrhoea. Microsporidia is a wide taxonomic grouping of unicellular parasites comprising thousands of species, of which at least 14 can infect humans. [159] Among the latter, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon intestinalis have been found in geese, and these are known to cause most cases of microsporidiosis in humans. Microsporidia occur in surface water and may survive up to a year at low temperatures. [160] In Poland, Encephalitozoon hellem was found in greylag geese (prevalence 9%, n = 34), mute swans (13%, n = 30), and in captive swans of three species (25-100%; n = 1-4), whereas Encephalitozoon intestinalis was found in domestic geese (9%, n = 11). [160] The suggested transmission pathway to humans is from faeces from geese and swans. However, this has never been demonstrated and the actual connection between occurrence in birds and human disease is thus unclear. The potential risk for transfer to humans and livestock is through surface water used for drinking water or recreation.

Potential transmission pathways

Occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wild geese and swans is another example of how pathogens from humans and livestock spill back into nature, and where wild birds potentially can spread these bacteria over longer distance. It is not surprising to find that there are large differences between, for example, North American and European populations of geese when it comes to prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, [132, 143, 144] as the use of antibiotics in animal production is less restrictive on the former continent.
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Lower MAPSE and TAPSE were associated with worse survival, suggesting systolic longitudinal dysfunction has prognostic value in cats with HCM C07 ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF AORTIC ROOT ROTATION IN DOGS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DIS-EASE. N.R. Wyatt 1 , B.A. Scansen 2 . 1 Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 2 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Rotation of the aortic root, defined as abnormal position of the aortic valvar sinuses relative to surrounding cardiac structures, has been described in children with congenital heart disease but not dogs. Children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) show clockwise aortic root rotation and have an increased prevalence of coronary artery anomalies. Coronary artery anomalies are also common in brachycephalic dogs with pulmonary valve stenosis (PS). This study evaluated aortic root rotation in dogs with normal hearts, PS, subaortic stenosis (SAS), and TOF. Aortic root rotation in normocephalic compared to brachycephalic PS dogs was also investigated.


The strikingly high prevalence of specific CNAs in canine tumors is supportive of their biological relevance in CPT oncogenesis and progression. If the characteristic CNAs of whole chromosomal losses reflects a common oncogenic mechanism in human and canine CPTs, comparative cytogenetics and more detailed analysis of candidate genes within orthologous regions may provide insight into both novel and common pathways in choroid plexus tumor biology. Implants used in surgical vertebral stabilization are typically placed bicortically due to a theoretical increase in pullout strength and construct stiffness. Bicortical implants, however, have an increased risk of impingement of regional neurovascular structures. Recent studies involving cervical vertebrae suggested that monocortical pin/screw plate constructs tested in bending are biomechanically equivalent to bicortical constructs. There is no data directly comparing the pullout strength of each implant type/ method in canine lumbar vertebrae.
Expression of cell surface avb3, and a3b1integrin in canine glioma cells was demonstrated using integrin specific peptide targeting, consistent with human cell lines and expression in dog tumour samples. Importantly, these integrin surface markers are also expressed in cell derived exosomes. Characterization of LXW7 and LXY30 binding exosomes in CSF and serum is therefore a rational strategy to define accessible biomarkers for gliomas in vivo. Meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis (M/ME/MEM) are inflammatory conditions which may be of immune or infectious origins. A perceived increase in these conditions at a specialty referral practice led to two investigative studies. The first study was a retrospective survey of MRI diagnoses made during a 3-year period (2013) (2014) (2015) to assess increased prevalence and/or temporal trends. The second study was a 7-month prospective study of possible immune or infectious causes of M/ME/ MEM diagnosed at the practice.
To estimate the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe cases of cognitive dysfunction, two methods were used. Firstly, scores from the cognitive dysfunction rating scale were calculated according to the authors' scheme. Secondly a two-step cluster analysis was performed on the cognitive function scores. Kruskal-Wallis was used to explore differences in cognitive dysfunction scores between weight groups and to compare Global Functioning Score (GFS) between age groups.
Two thousand one hundred and fourteen valid questionnaires were obtained. More than 28% of the dogs were 8-years-old or older (n = 605). The overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in that population was 19.7%. No severe cases of cognitive dysfunction were detected below 7 years of age. However, global functioning score increased until the age of 7 and then declined, with the lowest scores being seen in dogs aged 14 and above. The reported prevalence of cognitive dysfunction by the owners was just 2.3%, being ranked last in a list of 10 health conditions reported by the owner, including arthritis, tumours, hair loss, deafness and breathing problems. When owners were asked to rate the seriousness of each of a list of 5 health conditions, cognitive dysfunction ranked third, behind cancer and heart disease but above arthritis. Older owners ranked cognitive dysfunction as more serious than younger owners.


The CLIA cannot be recommended for measuring canine iPTH as most values were undetectable. This may be related to the antibodies used within the assay. The non-isotopic ELISA conferred advantages over IRMA with regard to ease of use but yielded higher values that would have impacted clinical decisionmaking. Additionally a high prevalence of duplicate errors and gel formation impacted reliability. Whilst more technically demanding, the IRMA proved the most reliable and robust method evaluated. Abnormal total calcium (tCa) values do not necessarily imply hypo/hypercalcemia based on measured ionized calcium (miCa). Unfortunately, miCa is not readily available in practice.
Nineteen dogs were assessed: 11 (57.89%) females and eight (42.11%) males with a mean age of 8.7 years. At Hypertriglyceridemia and elevated serum glucose were observed in dogs treated with chemotherapy associated with glucocorticoids. Further studies on these changes are necessary. In recent decades, the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) has increased significantly worldwide and is currently a major endocrine disease that causes high morbidity in middle-aged cats. Due to the lack of studies on this endocrine disease in Brazil, a retrospective study of stored serum samples from all cats older than eight years treated at the Veterinary Hospital of Anhembi Morumbi University (São Paulo, Brazil) was carried out from January 2013 to January 2015, regardless of the main complaint that led them to be treated at the service. Thyroid function was evaluated through total thyroxine (T4T) measurements. A total of 212 cat serum samples were sent to a private laboratory, where T4T was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Of the 212 assessed serum samples, 3.30% confirmed feline hyperthyroidism, 59.91% were within the normal range and 36.79% were below the normal value, suggesting sick euthyroid syndrome. In 2.35% of the samples, T4T values were close to the upper limit value, which raises the possibility that these cats had FHT, but whose comorbidities at the time of blood collection reduced T4T values in blood serum. We conclude that even though the prevalence of FHT in the assessed group was shown to be discreet, this clinical suspicion should be part of the differential diagnosis in cats aged ≥ eight years. Endo-and exogenous hypercortisolemia is well known to associated with insulin resistance in dogs. However, the types of changes in the levels of hormones involved in maintaining the blood glucose levels of dogs with hypercortisolemia are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether insulin sensitivity and the factors regulating blood glucose levels in dogs are altered by chronic administration of hydrocortisone.


This study found that dogs with AP exhibited decreased 25-(OH)D levels, which might be the result of inflammatory responses rather than a cause of AP. Moreover, alterations in serum 25-(OH)D concentrations might be associated with disease severity or mortality in dogs with AP. A high prevalence of cholestatic disease, including gall bladder mucocele (GBM) has been reported in dogs with naturally-occurring pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Differences exist in the clinical features of dogs with PDH and concurrent cholestatic disease, and also is the management of these dogs with trilostane. In this study, 65 client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring PDH were analyzed. Each dog was treated with trilostane for at least 3 months before the study, and had a good clinical response, as determined by owners. Statistical comparisons of clinical signs, results of routine blood tests, basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentration, and optimal trilostane dosage were made after dogs were separated into the following 3 groups by ultrasonographic imaging: normal on ultrasound (NOU) group, cholestasis group, and GBM group. The GBM group had more severe clinical signs, and significantly different total serum cholesterol concentration and post-ACTH stimulation cortisol concentration at the time of diagnosis. Dogs that weighed <6 kg had a significantly higher prevalence of cholestatic disease than did the other dogs (P = 0.003). The optimal trilostane dosages for the GBM and cholestasis groups were 2.5 and 1.5 times the dosage of the NOU group, respectively (P < 0.001). Gall bladder disease associated with cholestatic disease is correlated with PDH in dogs, both in its clinical features and drug management. These findings may be associated with hypercholesterolemia, unidentified genetic factors, and the hydrophobic nature of trilostane. Hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs; however, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism may be difficult because nonthyroidal illness (NTI) and medication might affect the results of thyroid function tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a thyrotropin (TSH) stimulation test for diagnosing hypothyroidism.


One PA dog was removed after 14 days for severe weight loss; invasive gastric erosions were identified via capsule endoscopy. Endoscopic lesions were present at day 28 in 0/3 C dogs, 1/3 A dogs (>20 hemorrhages, 4 hemorrhagic tracts), 1/3 P dogs (≥12 invasive erosions), 2/2 remaining PA dogs (≥10 invasive erosions, each), and 2/3 PC dogs (1: 8 invasive erosions, diffuse hemorrhage; 1: 1 deep ulcer). All platelet counts were normal. There were 3/3 and 3/3 C dogs, 2/3 and 1/3 A dogs, 3/3 and 1/3 PC dogs, and 0/3 and 0/2 PA dogs classified as responders based on PFA closure times on days 14 and 28, respectively. Frequency of bleeding did not differ significantly among groups. Responder status differed significantly among groups at day 14 (P = 0.03) but not 28 (P = 0.6) Clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding did not occur with sustained clopidogrel therapy but occurred in all other treatment groups. Efficacy of antiplatelet therapy decreased over time, particularly in dogs receiving concurrent steroid therapy. Further evaluation in a larger population of dogs is warranted. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism (HA) frequently show gastrointestinal signs (GIS). However, the proportion of dogs presented for chronic GIS as their main complaint ultimately suffering from HA is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of HA in dogs with chronic GIS and to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that help to diagnose HA in these dogs.
A standardized work-up was performed in all dogs with GIS >3 weeks duration presented to one of the specialists of the German gastroenterology working group between November 2014 and December 2015. This included a basal serum cortisol measurement, and an ACTH stimulation test (ACTHST) if basal serum cortisol was < 3 lg/dL. 151 dogs were prospectively included. Basal serum cortisol concentration was < 3 lg/dL in 80/151 (53%) and < 2 lg/dL in 42/ 151 (28%) dogs. In 6/151 dogs HA was diagnosed based on ACTHST (stimulated serum cortisol concentration < 2 lg/dL), representing a prevalence of 4%. No hyperkalemia/ hyponatremia was observed in any dog with HA. In 5/6 HA dogs, melena or hematochezia was noted. No historical information or laboratory parameter was able to separate HA from other disorders causing chronic GIS.
In conclusion, the prevalence of HA amongst dogs with chronic GIS is considerable. No differentiation between HA and other causes leading to chronic GIS is possible based on history, physical examination or baseline blood work. Determination of basal serum cortisol concentration should be performed as a screening test for HA, followed by an ACTHST in suspicious cases. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is associated with decreased production of intrinsic factor (IF) in dogs and cats. Since IF is required for cobalamin (CBL) absorption in the ileum, CBL deficiency is a prevalent sequel to EPI in dogs and is associated with a negative prognosis.
Vomiting and regurgitation occur commonly following PEG administration in dogs with naturally occurring large intestinal diseases. Maropitant was not superior in preventing these. PEG administration technique may be important. Recently, novel pore-forming toxins designated as NetE and NetF were identified in a Clostridium (C.) perfringens type A strain isolated from a dog with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. Poreforming toxins, which have cytotoxic activity, could be responsible for the necrotizing mucosal lesions typically present in dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS). Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of C. perfringens encoding netE and netF in feces of dogs with AHDS and to evaluate any association between severity of clinical signs and the presence of these toxin genes.
There was a significant difference between the three groups in the prevalence of the pore-forming toxins netE and netF (dogs with AHDS: 26/54 (48.1%); dogs with CPV-infection: 0/54; (0%); healthy dogs: 8/66 (12.1%)) (P < 0.01). In dogs with AHDS, no significant difference was detected in any parameter evaluated between netE-and netF-positive and netE-and netF -negative dogs.


Although dogs with CE showed altered proportions of fecal bile acids, differences in the expression of TGR5 in colonic samples could not be detected by immunohistochemistry. Further investigations using other techniques, including gene arrays, are needed and might contribute to the understanding of bile acid dysmetabolism in dogs with CE. It is estimated that~15% of foster kittens die or are euthanized due to illness before 8-wks of age. Most reportedly have clinical signs or post-mortem evidence of gastrointestinal disease. In children, enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea, is associated with higher hazard of death, and has proven difficult to detect or experimentally model in animals. We previously reported EPEC in a series of kittens that died with diarrhea. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of EPEC infection in kittens and its association with diarrhea, diarrhea-associated mortality, specific intestinal tract pathology, and possible risk factors.


Based on fecal culture the prevalence of EPEC infection was 18% in both live and deceased kittens. Based on qPCR amplification of eae from feces prevalence was 37% in live kittens and 48% in deceased kittens. EPEC was observed in kittens with and without diarrhea. However, kittens that died or were euthanized due to severe diarrhea harbored a significantly greater quantity of live EPEC and eae compared to kittens without diarrhea. Kittens diagnosed with EPEC had significantly greater severity of inflammatory infiltrates in the small intestine and colon and increased epithelial injury in the small intestine. Enteroadherent E. coli was observed by means of FISH in 2 kittens. When live and deceased kitten populations were examined on the basis of EPEC diagnosis, significant associations were observed between EPEC infection and medical history of subcutaneous fluid administration.
These findings identify EPEC as a prevalent infection in kittens and implicate EPEC as a significant primary or contributing cause of intestinal inflammation, dehydration, and diarrhea-associated mortality in kittens. A high prevalence of EPEC in healthy kittens and children complicates interpretation of EPEC infection in patients with diarrhea. Future efforts to identify mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to EPEC-induced diarrhea will lead to advanced understanding of EPEC pathogenesis in kittens and children. The gut microbiota is important in maintaining intestinal health. Bile acids are increasingly appreciated to play a role in regulation of gut microbial composition and intestinal health. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol, conjugated in the liver, and once secreted into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), undergo modification by certain members of the intestinal microbiota. Numerous bile acid receptors (e.g., farnesoid X receptor and G proteincoupled membrane receptor) have been identified along the GIT and are responsible for regulating metabolism and maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment in the gut. The aim of this study was to develop and analytically validate a gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) assay for the identification and quantification of bile acids in canine feces.

With flow cytometry, LTLC induced activation of B cells and T and monocytes, as reflected by upregulated expression of MHCII expression on B cells and monocytes and upregulated expression of OX40 on T cells and B cells. In addition, LTLC induced T cell proliferation.

The clinical significance of these results remains unknown, but they suggest the need for further evaluation to determine if candidates for gene therapy from a pet population might require screening tests or immunosuppressive therapy prior to receiving AAV vector based treatment. Improved understanding of Bartonella spp. serological patterns in dogs may aid clinical decision making and enhance current understanding of naturally-occurring arthropod vector transmission. We analyzed a large diagnostic laboratory database to better understand Bartonella seroepidemiology of dogs in North America, identifying demographic groups in which Bartonella exposure may be more likely, describing variations in chronologic and geographic patterns of Bartonella seroreactivity, and examining coexposure to other vector-borne pathogens. We hypothesize that there will be no significant demographic risk factors for Bartonella exposure, and that Bartonella exposure will be more common in regions and seasons with high vector prevalence and among dogs with other canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) exposure.
Overall prevalence was 7.2% (19/265) in dogs, 1.6% (1/61) in cats. No (0/45) horses carried MRS. MRSP carriage was found in 19 dogs and none of the cats. MRSA carriage was identified in one dog (also MRSP carrier) and in one cat. We found a statistically significant difference in MRSP carriage rate between site R (3.2%) and site U (24.4%). Significant spatial variation was found in MRSP carrier dogs explained by clinical history and contextual factors of dog's residence.
In conclusion, major difference in canine MRSP carriage rates may exist between urban and rural areas. Leishmania spp., Neorickettsia spp., and Bartonella spp. in presumptively healthy dogs presenting to the Oklahoma State University VTH for annual wellness evaluation. A secondary objective was to correlate PCR results with historical information, physical examination, and clinicopathologic results. All dogs enrolled in the study had a client survey completed, SNAP Ò 4Dx Plus Ò (IDEXX), CBC, chemistry panel, and vector-borne disease PCR. One hundred and twelve dogs (61 females, 51 males) with a median age of 5 years (range: 0.75-14 years) were enrolled in the study between July 2016 and November 2016. SNAP Ò 4Dx Plus Ò results showed that 13 dogs (11.6%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp., while only 1 of 13 was Ehrlichia PCR positive. Eight dogs (7.1%) were PCR positive for a vector-borne pathogen, with 6/8 infected with Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, 1 with Mycoplasma haemocanis, and 1 with Ehrlichia ewingii. Four of 8 infected dogs had normal CBC and chemistry results, while 2/8 dogs had clinicopathologic abnormalities potentially attributed to vector-borne disease (thrombocytopenia 62,000/uL and hyperglobulinemia 4.0 g/ dL). Anemia was not documented in any dog infected with Mycoplasma spp. The prevalence of vector-borne disease in healthy dogs presenting to the Oklahoma State University VTH is fairly low, with Mycoplasma spp. infection being most common. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection has been commonly associated with clinical disease in humans and dogs. However, A. phagocytophilum infection has not routinely been associated with clinical disease in cats. Recent reports have shown that Anaplasma infection can cause significant illness in cats. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection in adult feral cats in Massachusetts, an endemic area for A. phagocytophilum and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis.


The prevalence of exposure to A. phagocytophilum in feral cats in Massachusetts was 9.71%, whereas the prevalence of acute infection was 6.94%. All blood smears were negative for Anaplasma inclusions; therefore, acute infection was defined as testing positive on PCR analysis.
The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum exposure in feral cats approaches 10% and is significantly higher than the previously reported prevalence of 4.3% in the United States (P < 0.001%). A. phagocytophilum infection may be an emerging infectious disease in felines. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of clinical illness associated with A. phagocytophilum infection in cats living in endemic areas. However, the incidence of OFIs and risk factors for their development in dogs undergoing immunosuppressive treatment are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of dogs diagnosed with certain immune-mediated diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs that develop OFIs during followup and to determine if particular drug(s) were a risk factor for OFIs.
When samples with ≤ 1000 cfu/mL were considered negative, sensitivity and specificity of the immunoassay were 90.9% and 96.6% respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 76.9% and 98.9%. Given the low prevalence of bacterial cystitis in cats, these data suggest that the immunoassay is a useful screening tool for cats presenting with LUTS. Entercoccus faecium (Efm) was cultured from a commercially available probiotic. Its effect on Tf proliferation was evaluated throughout log phase growth. The potential of Efm to reduce Tf adhesion to the intestinal epithelium was analyzed with a co-culture model using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Tf and IPEC-J2 were pre-treated with Efm prior to co-culture to evaluate both prophylactic and post-infection treatment with Efm. Tf adhesion and cytotoxicity were evaluated using fluorescent microscopy and crystal violet spectrophotometric analysis. Data were analyzed using SigmaStat.
These results demonstrate that Efm inhibits Tf growth. Pretreatment of intestinal epithelial cells with Efm, but not treatment at the time of Tf infection, inhibits adhesion of Tf to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Studies investigating other Enterococcus spp, as well as multi-strain probiotics, in combination with ronidazole are warranted. Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are members of an emerging subfamily of the Herpesviridae. The two major human GHVs, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), are clinically important pathogens because those viruses possess tumorigenesis potential especially in immune-compromised patients. In feline practice, we often experience tumor cases, especially lymphomas. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was a major cause for the development of lymphoma in the past days, however, the majority of lymphoma cases are shifting to FeLVfree cats. But the mechanism of tumorigenesis in these spontaneously developed lymphomas has not been well understood. Under this situation, GHV became a candidate which explain the lymphomagenesis in domestic cats. Recent study identified a novel GHV in domestic cats (Felis catus GHV, FcaGHV), and epidemiological surveys found that FcaGHVs are distributing in several countries including the United States, Australia, Singapore, Germany and Austria. In the present study, a nation-wide molecular epidemiological study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of GHVs in Japan.
In this study, the prevalence of GHVs in Japanese domestic cats was surveyed and risk factor for GHV infection was determined. FcaGHV prevalence in Japan (1.4%) was lower than previously reported prevalence in other countries and areas (US, 16%; Europe, 16.2%). It was unable to determine the cause of this difference. However, Japanese isolates were identified to have close genetic relationship to domestic cat derived FcaGHV. This finding suggested that the virus is highly conserved in each animal species and GHV is harboring in host specific manner as well as other herpesviruses. The risk factor for GHV infection in Japanese cats was FIV infection and it was same as previously reported. But we have to clarify how FIV enhances the GHV infection and/or viremia. The clinical importance of GHVs infection in feline practice is still unknown. Further investigation will be necessary to identify the pathogenicity of GHVs in domestic cats. Zoetis has been conducting an ongoing surveillance program to evaluate the susceptibility trends of antimicrobial agents against canine and feline Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathogens isolated from Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) since 2011. The data were analyzed annually and the first five years of susceptibility data for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefovecin, cefpodoxime, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin are presented here. A total of 3,300 E. coli strains, isolated as the etiological agent in cats and dogs presenting with naturally occurring UTIs and being seen at primary/general care practices were submitted to this surveillance program by 16 veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States (US) and Canada. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for all isolates were tested using a broth microdilution system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Oakwood Village, OH) that conforms to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards.


Blood samples from dogs were collected with owner permission for use in a vector borne agent prevalence study in Mexico. After collection, the aliquot of blood was placed in EDTA, and then 300 lL was blotted onto filter paper (VWR Ò Grade 413), allowed to dry, and stored in individual sterile bags. The filter paper samples were stored at room temperature, and the EDTA blood was stored at -80°C until assayed at the central laboratory. A glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) quantitative PCR was used to estimate DNA yields in the different experiments. Different buffers and incubation periods were assessed in experiments using the entire filter paper in different washing procedures, and it was determined that an overnight PBS wash gave the best results (Method 1). In Method 2, a commercially available kit (QIAamp Ò DNA Blood Mini Kit Dried Blood Spot (DBS) protocol) was performed as per the manufacturer's instructions. Once Method 1 was optimized, 12 samples previously shown to be positive for E. canis DNA in blood by conventional PCR assay and 3 known negative samples were thawed and used to make 2 filter paper blots which were allowed to dry overnight before being subjected to DNA extraction Methods 1 and 2. The whole blood and filter paper derived DNA extracts were then assayed in the GAPDH qPCR and the Ehrlichia spp. PCR assay. A total of 11 whole blood samples were PCR positive with bands characterized as strong (n = 4), medium (n = 3), or weak (n = 4). One sample using Method 1 was excluded due to the washing of an incorrect blot.
In conclusion, increased sodium intake resulted in greater urine volume and lower USG without changing urine concentrations of calculogenic components. Moderately increased dietary sodium could be a viable way to increase urination in dogs with lower urinary tract conditions. While the prevalence of functional impairment and injury in the kidney is high in cancer patients, it is significantly under diagnosed using creatinine. In a study of lymphoma patients, 4 out of 10 had comprised kidney function but, only 1 out of 4 of this cohort was identified using creatinine. The remainder needed kidney biopsies for diagnosis. The most common causes of compromised kidneys include infiltration, nephrotoxic chemotherapeutics, volume depletion, tumor lysis syndrome, obstruction and sepsis. The ineffectiveness of creatinine is likely due to reduced production as a result of cachexia, reduced protein intake and therapeutics to mention few.
In conclusion, the increase in SDMA correlated with histopathologic findings in patients with neoplasia. Thus, SDMA is a more reliable estimate of kidney function in cats and dogs with cancer. his study investigated water intake and hydration in healthy cats and evaluated a nutrient-enriched water on hydration. Domestic shorthair cats (N = 18; mean age 9.8 yrsAESD 2.5; BCS 5-7 on 9point scale) received either tap-water (W; N = 9) or test-water containing whey protein and glycerol (TW; N = 9) for 56 days. Prior to treatment, a 7-d baseline established daily W and food consumption using a 2-bowl monitoring system with ad libitum water and dry food. Blood and urine samples were collected on days À1, 8, 15, 30, and 56 for urine specific gravity (USG), creatinine, and osmolality measurements. Endogenous creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated from sample collection on days 28-30 or 31-33. Baseline W and calorie intake were similar between groups. Although no difference was observed between groups during the treatment phase, TW group had a daily liquid increase of 52%, with a median intake across all days that ranged from 5% to 254% increase. Variance was controlled post hoc with cats characterized as responders (R:consumption >25%) and nonresponders (NR) (W: 2R/7NR versus TW: 7R/2NR; P = 0.02). Daily urine volume (mL/kg BW) was higher (P = 0.02) in TW (15.2 AE SE 1.8) versus the W treated cats (10.3 AE SE 0.7), but no difference (P = 0.60) between groups for GFR (1.8 AE SE 0.1 versus 1.9 AE SE 0.2, respectively). Baseline USG was similar between groups (1.052 g/mL), but declined (ANOVA P < 0.01) with TW (1.037 g/mL AESE 0.005) versus W (1.053 g/mL AESE 0.002). Serum osmolality was similar for both groups over the entire trial. This study suggests that specific nutrients added to a cat's water can improve liquid intake to significantly improve overall hydration, as determined by greater urine output and dilution, which may offer a health benefit to some cats in need of greater water consumption. Progressive interstitial nephritis (IN) is the primary cause of feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) which affects as many as 50% of elderly cats and prevalence increases with age. Vaccination has been shown to be a risk factor for development of feline CKD. The Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell line is commonly used to grow viruses for use in feline vaccine production. Repeated administration of a vaccine containing CRFK remnants as a model for interstitial nephritis was shown to induce strong antibody responses against CRFK lysates and against alpha-enolase, an immunodominant glycolytic pathway enzyme found in all mammalian cells that has been studied as a marker of inflammatory diseases in people. The primary objectives of this study were to further evaluate this potential model for IN by assessing samples from the cats for cell-mediated immune responses to alpha-enolase, by evaluating serum cytokine concentrations using a commercially available kit, and by describing changes in renal alpha-enolase staining patterns.


Abnormal BALF cytology confirmed IAD in 14/19 (73.7%) horses. Both FOM and RIP revealed AHR in 7/14 (50%) of these IAD horses. An additional 4/19 (21.1%) horses showed AHR based solely on RIP testing, including 2 horses with normal BALF cytology. A diagnosis of AHR was more often associated with RIP than FOM testing (P = 0.013), although the prevalence of AHR was significantly higher in IAD vs non-IAD horses, regardless of testing methodology. The phase angle between thoracic and abdominal components of breathing did not differ between patient groups.
Valacyclovir is a relatively expensive drug that is routinely used to treat horses with EMPF. This study revealed that 10 days of valacyclovir treatment did not significantly alter viral kinetics of EHV-5 as measured by qPCR in nasal swabs, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is diagnosed and severity assessed by post-exercise tracheobronchoscopic examination (TBE), and/or enumeration of erythrocytes (RBCs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). TBE EIPH scores range from 0 to 4, 0 indicating no EIPH. BALF RBC < 1000/lL indicates no EIPH. There is scant information regarding the relationship of TBE EIPH score to BALF RBC number. We hypothesized that BALF RBC was weakly correlated (r 2 < 0.20) with TBE score. TBE followed by BAL was performed 223 times on 151 different horses after treadmill (8 horses, 45 runs), racetrack (6 horses, 24 runs), or barrel racing (143 horses, 155 runs) exercise. TBE EIPH score ranged from 0 (n = 83) to 4 (n = 5). RBC number ranged from 0 to 994,000/lL. Eleven TBE scores were 0 despite RBC count > 1000/lL. There were 61 exams with TBE scores ≥ 1 but BALF RBC counts < 1000/lL. The relationship between TBE score and BALF RBC number was significant but weak (P < 0.001; r 2 = 0.19) after Spearman's evaluation. TBE EIPH score was weakly correlated with BALF RBC number and there were large ranges of BALF RBCs associated with each TBE score. An EIPH score of 0 does not rule out the occurrence of EIPH, but neither does a BALF RBC count < 1000/lL. The latter finding was unexpected and may be explained by fast clearance of the respiratory tract or lavage of an airway segment other than the one bleeding. The possibility of technical errors counting RBCs in some samples cannot be discounted. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) refers to presence of blood in the airways caused by strenuous exercise. It has been documented in racing, polo and eventing horses, but little is known about EIPH in barrel racing horses. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of EIPH in barrel racing horses, estimate its prevalence in the Pacific Northwest and determine whether a relationship between EIPH and performance exists.
The prevalence of EIPH in our study was 54%. Horses that ran faster had a significantly greater likelihood of bleeding P < 0.014. Bleeding did not significantly affect performance, although horses that bled finished lower than horses that didn't bleed. Significant (P < 0.001) positive linear relationship between the tracheal score and BAL erythrocyte count was shown. Correlation coefficient between these 2 tests was poor (r 2 = 0.14).
This study shows EIPH is present in barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest and may impact performance. The long term effects of EIPH and other variables requires further study. Cardiac arrhythmias, most notably atrial fibrillation, have been linked to poor performance. In a recent study Draft and Warmblood breeds were more likely to be presented with atrial fibrillation in comparison to most light breeds, with the exception of Standardbreds. To our knowledge there is no data describing a population of competition ready Draft horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of silent cardiac arrhythmias in a population of Draft horses. A convenience sample of 245 Draft horses was studied at the 2015 Michigan Great Lakes International Draft Horse Show. Information gathered on each horse included signalment, history of poor performance, upper airway noise, myopathy, and cardiac arrhythmias or murmurs. All horses were auscultated on each side of the thorax for 30 seconds. A 30-second electrocardiographic (ECG) recording was then taken using a handheld recording device that transmitted to a smart phone (AliveCor Ò ). ECG recordings were evaluated for rhythm and heart rate, P-R interval, and R-R interval were measured. The study population included 82 Percherons, 69 Belgians, 69 Clydesdales, 11 Belgian mules, 8 Shires, and 5 Percheron mules. Arrhythmias were found in four horses: atrial fibrillation (1), ventricular premature depolarizations (1), second degree atrioventricular block (2). None of these horses had a history of poor performance or known cardiac arrhythmias. We concluded that the prevalence of silent arrhythmias in well-conditioned, competitive Draft horses is low (2/245; 0.8%).
Significant changes in circulating ACTH (P < 0.0017) and cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0001) were detected at numerous time points after dexamethasone treatment in both groups of horses; however, significant differences between groups were not evident. In conclusion, dexamethasone administration appeared to suppress plasma ACTH concentrations for up to 36 hours and serum cortisol concentrations for at least 48 hours in healthy horses and horses affected by PPID. Studies with larger sample sizes may better distinguish differences in the response of the endocrine axis to dexamethasone treatment in healthy horses compared to horses with PPID. Inflammation is key in the development of post-operative ileus (POI) in rodents, with a similar pathogenesis likely occurring in other species. It is well established that dexamethasone reduces inflammation and therefore may reduce POI in horses. A retrospective study was performed to determine if dexamethasone reduces POI in horses with small intestinal (SI) disease, and to assess effects on incisional health and short-term survival. Data from all horses that underwent SI colic surgery and received 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously during surgery (DEX) was extracted from clinical records (61 horses). Thirty-two horses underwent (SI) resection and 29 did not. Data from 61 horses that The increasing prevalence of macrolide-resistant Rhodococcus equi and the lack of alternative antimicrobials necessitates identifying novel therapies. Stimulating host innate immune responses can enhance clearance of infectious agents. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine whether an agonist for Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2/6 and 9 (viz., PUL-042) could increase the killing capacity of adult equine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) against macrolide-resistant and macrolide-susceptible R. equi; and, 2) to determine whether PUL-042 had a synergistic effect with clarithromycin on the killing capacity of MDMs against R. equi. The null hypotheses were that PUL-042 would not increase the killing capacity of MDMs against either strain of R. equi and that PUL-042 would not have a synergistic effect on the killing capacity of MDMs when combined with clarithromycin.


CAUSES OF FATALITIES DURING FEI THREE-DAY EVENTING. I. Comyn 1 , A. Bathe 1 , A. Foote 2 , C. Marr 3 . 1 Rossdales LLP, Exning, UK, 2 Rossdales LLP, Newmarket, UK, 3 Rossdales LLP/Equine Veterinary Journal/University of Glasgow/ Horserace Betting Levy Board, Exning, UK Data on equine deaths in Three-Day Eventing (3DE) is lacking. We aimed to report the prevalence of sudden death and fatal musculoskeletal injury in 3DE and describe causes of sudden death. Numbers of starts, fatalities (death/euthanasia) and fatal musculoskeletal injuries between 2008 -2014 were obtained from the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI). Post-mortem reports were reviewed and sudden deaths were classified using categories defined for Thoroughbred racing [1].
There were 112,958 starts and 66 fatalities thus a prevalence of 5.8 deaths/10,000 starts. There were 41 (62%, 3.6/10,000 starts) musculoskeletal injuries; 16 (24%, 1.4/10,000 starts) sudden deaths, 9 cases (14%) where further details were not provided. There was considerable variation in available information on postmortem examination. A definitive cause of death was identified in 6 of the 16 sudden death cases: 3 central nervous system trauma and 3 blood vessel rupture. Presumptive diagnoses were proposed in 5/16 cases, all cardiopulmonary failure. Cause of sudden death was unidentified in 5/16. This distribution of musculoskeletal injury versus sudden death is similar to fatalities in racing. The distribution amongst categories was also similar to Thoroughbred racing fatalities but definitive diagnoses were reached less frequently. A more standardised system of reporting fatalities would be valuable. Lyle, C. H et al. (2011) , Sudden death in racing Thoroughbred horses: An international multicentre study of post mortem findings. Equine Veterinary Journal, 43: 324-331. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are progenitor cells which function in neovascularization and may be useful therapeutically in conditions with poor blood supply, such as distal limb wounds in horses. An injectable ECFC/hydrogel scaffold may ensure cell survival and localization to improve neovascularization and healing.
In conclusion, oral electrolytes with or without hypertonic saline appeared to be an excellent alternative for resuscitation of calves with moderate diarrhea and acidosis and often performed better than small volumes of IV or SC fluids. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples are used to determine the infection status and estimate dairy herd prevalence for Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) using an antibody ELISA assay. BLV ELISA variability between samples from the same herd or from different herds has not been investigated. The objective was to determine the within-herd and between-herd variability of a BTM BLV ELISA assay over 1-month, 3-month, and 3-year sampling intervals.
Variability of BTM sample antibody levels within the same herd is present but is much smaller than the variability between herds, and is greatest for the 3-year sampling interval. The 3-month sampling interval resulted in the least variability and is appropriate to use to determine the baseline level of within-herd prevalence for BLV control programs and to determine the effectiveness of control programs when repeated at regular intervals.
Udder-half level milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial culture, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk components (% fat and % protein) determination from all lactating goats (n = 909) on a commercial goat dairy. Aerobic bacterial culture was performed on Columbia blood agar for 24 h at 37°C. Goats with at least one udder-half yielding a single colony morphology of CNS were enrolled for two additional once monthly udder-half level milk samplings. Staphylococcal isolates were identified to the species-level using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and sequencing of the tuf gene when MALDI-ToF yielded an indeterminate result. Intramammary infection status was defined based on the presence of the same species of CNS in 1, 2, or 3 of the samples from each udder half. Differences in prevalence of chronic IMI (CNS-CNS-0, CNS-0-CNS or CNS-CNS-CNS) versus only an IMI on the first sample (CNS-0-0) were assessed within species using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test as applicable (Table 1) . Significance was declared at P < 0.05. For species with ≤ 3 IMI within species, data were combined into a single category (Other CNS) for analysis.
The LAQUAtwin ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [Na + ] 11.0 mEq/L (7.9%) lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in indirect mode accurately measured urine [Na + ]. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured milk [Na + ] 3.1 mEq/L (15.0%) lower than the indirect Table 1 . Association between prevalence of a given coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CNS) and persistence of IMI for 217 udder-halves (n = 63 with single IMI and n = 154 with chronic IMI). Parenthetic data represents the within column percentage of IMI. ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured abomasal fluid [Na + ] 4.5 mEq/L (8.6%) lower than the indirect ISE reference method.


In conclusion, administration of danofloxacin and tulathromycin SC at label doses in 3-week old and 6-month old calves demonstrated differences in distribution that are affected by age. More research is needed to determine the impacts of physiological differences and disease on the distribution and efficacy of commonly used drugs in neonatal calves. The objective of this project was to describe the ecology of host-adapted Staphylococcus spp. on the teat and inguinal skin of dairy heifers. A cross-sectional study including Holstein heifers (n = 106) at the University of Missouri Foremost Dairy was conducted. Heifers were randomly selected based on housing type and age group and enrolled in the following groups; preweaned heifers (n = 22), weaned heifers age 2-6 months (n = 15), young pasture raised heifers age 6-13 months (n = 26), pasture raised heifers age 13-18 months (n = 22), and breeding age heifers ˃18 months (n = 21). Body site swabbing samples, which included a composite sample of all four teats and a second composite sample from the inguinal regions of each heifer, were collected. Swabbing samples were mixed with 10 mL of sterile saline, agitated, and plated on mannitol salt agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Up to 10 staphylococcal colonies, including at least one of each morphologically distinct colony type, were saved for analysis. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and sequencing of the rpoB or tuf gene. The Chi square or Fisher's exact test (as applicable) was used to investigate whether the prevalence of each staphylococcal species differed between the inguinal and teat region. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between heifer's age (continuous variable) and the probability of having a given body site colonized with a certain staphylococcal species.
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Common cold viruses create significant health and financial burdens, and understanding key loci of transmission would help focus control strategies. This study (1) examines factors that influence when individuals transition from a negative to positive test (acquisition) or a positive to negative test (loss) of rhinovirus (HRV) and other respiratory tract viruses in 26 households followed weekly for one year, (2) investigates evidence for intrahousehold and interhousehold transmission and the characteristics of individuals implicated in transmission, and (3) builds data-based simulation models to identify factors that most strongly affect patterns of prevalence.
We detected HRV, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, influenza and bocavirus with the FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC). We used logistic regression to find covariates affecting acquisition or loss of HRV including demographic characteristics of individuals, their household, their current infection status, and prevalence within their household and across the population. We apply generalized linear mixed models to test robustness of results.
Acquisition of HRV was less probable in older individuals and those infected with a coronavirus, and higher with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Loss of HRV is reduced with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Within households, only children and symptomatic individuals show evidence for transmission, while between households only a higher number of infected older children (ages 5-19) increases the probability of acquisition. Coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and bocavirus also show evidence of intrahousehold transmission. Simulations show that age-dependent susceptibility and transmission have the largest effects on mean HRV prevalence.
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have an acceptable safety profile and clinically acceptable immunogenicity. 68 Human astrovirus (family Astroviridae, genus Mamastrovirus) may also be responsible for sporadic infections or epidemics, occasionally in newborns and children. 61, 63 Human bocavirus (family Parvoviridae, genus Bocavirus), recently discovered, has been suggested to be involved in a large spectrum of clinical manifestations, including gastroenteritis. 63, 69 Human coronaviruses (HCoVs; family Coronaviridae, genus Coronavirus) are common causes of upper respiratory tract infections. A new coronavirus was found to be a causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS-HCoV caused a serious lower respiratory tract infection with high mortality. Diarrhea is common in this condition, and in one study was registered in 38.4% of patients. In the same study, SARS-HCoV was also isolated from intestinal tissue, and viral RNA was detected in stool samples. Moreover, non-SARS HCoVs can be found in stool samples of children with AGE. However, most of the HCoV findings were coinfections with well-known enteric pathogens -norovirus and rotavirus. It is also difficult to determine whether HCoVs in the respiratory tract in cases of AGE were primarily causing the respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. HCoVs may also be found in occasional stool samples of children without gastroenteritis. These findings suggest that known HCoVs may at most have a minor etiologic role in AGE of children. 70 Human rotavirus (family Reoviridae, genus Rotavirus) in the past was considered to be responsible for the most severe episodes of diarrhea in children. 71, 72 There have been reports of epidemics in neonatal intensive care units caused by rotavirus or enterovirus that can determine cases of necrotizing enterocolitis or necrotizing enterocolitis-like symptoms: abdominal distention, bloody diarrhea, and septicemia secondary to enteric bacteria. Improved diagnostic tools for norovirus (family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus): have shown that it has a major role in both epidemic and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. 59, 73 Sapoviruses (family Caliciviridae, genus Sapovirus): mainly infect children younger than 5 years of age. 59 The illness is milder than that caused by noroviruses. 73 Antibody prevalence studies show that virtually all children are infected with sapoviruses by the time they are 5 years of age, indicating that sapovirus infection is widespread, although the illness most likely is sporadic with a high rate of asymptomatic infection. 59, 74, 75 Torque teno midi virus/small anellovirus (TTMDV/SAV) is a member of the family Anelloviridae. Although human TTV infection is ubiquitous and several infecting genogroups of the virus have been identified, to date there is no consistent evidence of a link between TTV infection of humans and specific disease. [76] [77] [78] [79] In a recent Hungarian study, viral shedding, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of TTMDV/ SAV were studied in human body fluids (nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with acute respiratory diseases and serum, stool and urine samples collected from eight healthy children with previous TTMDV/SAV infection). In this study, shedding of TTMDV/SAV and related viruses was detected in two other human body fluids, feces and urine, suggesting the existence of fecal-oral/urinary-oral transmission routes beyond the originally presumed blood-borne and later-suggested respiratory route. This finding extends the number of possible successful transmission routes.
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A. Mcluckiea 1 , S. Spencer 2 , S. Tasker 2 , N. Dhand 1 , S. Spencer 2 , J.A. Beatty 1 . 1 Faculty of Veterinary Science and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases, Sydney, Australia, 2 University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) is the first gammaherpesvirus (GHV) to be identified in domestic cats. Prevalence studies have identified this virus in domestic cats in the USA, Australia, Singapore and, most recently, Central Europe, but no data are available for UK cats. The consequences of FcaGHV1 for feline health are yet to be elucidated but in other species, GHV infections are typically clinically silent unless there is immune dysfunction in the natural host, in which case they can cause a range of lymphoproliferative and neoplastic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for FcaGHV1 infection in pet cats in the UK.
Of 377 sera, 55.7% (CI 0.51-0.61) showed a reciprocal MAT titre of 1:40 and 24.9% (CI 0.21-0.3) of ≥1:100 to at least one serovar. Seropositivity (MAT ≥1:100) was most common to serovar Australis (14.9%; CI 0.06-0.12), Bratislava (8.8%; CI 0.11-0.19), Copenhageni (6.5%; CI 0.04-0.1), Canicola (5.7%; CI 0.03-0.09), Grippotyphosa (4.5%; CI 0.03-0.07)), Pomona (4%; CI 0.02-0.06), Autumnalis (2.7%; CI and Icterohaemorrhagiae (1.6%; CI 0.01-0.05). Seropositivity was inversely correlated with the time since last anti-leptospiral vaccination (P < 0.001). In unvaccinated dogs (n = 87) the overall prevalence of a MAT titre ≥100 was 17.2% (CI 0.01-0.27), The serovars which sera reacted with were Australis (9%; CI 0.04-0.17), Bratislava (8.0%; CI 0.03-0.16), Copenhageni (3.8%; CI 0.01-0.11), Grippotyphosa (3.4%; CI 0.01-0.1), Canicola (3.0%; CI 0.01-0.12), Pomona (2.3%; CI 0-0.08) and Autumnalis (2.3%; CI 0-0.06). Urine PCR was performed in 408 dogs, only one of which had a positive PCR result (0.25%; CI 0-0.01).
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) is a well-known disease, but its exact pathogenesis is still unclear. Recently, a canine circovirus (DogCV) was detected, which might potentially play a primary role or represent a co-factor in the development of AHDS. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of DogCV in healthy dogs, dogs with AHDS, and dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV) infection and (2) to evaluate the pathogenic role of DogCV in these patient groups. A total of 175 dogs (55 dogs with AHDS, 66 healthy dogs, 54 CPV-positive dogs) were included. Faecal samples were tested by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting DogCV replicase and capsid genes. For comparison between DogCV-positive and DogCV-negative dogs, a standardized evaluation of clinical parameters and faecal consistency was performed daily during hospitalization.
There was no significant difference between the three groups in the prevalence of DogCV (healthy dogs: 3/66 (4.6%); dogs with AHDS: 2/55 (3.6%), dogs with CPV-infection: 7/54 (12.3%)). However, within the CPV-infected group, DogCV-positive dogs had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to DogCV-negative dogs, while time to recovery was not significantly affected.
Disclosures: All authors are employees of Virbac. Canine leishmaniasis is a major global parasitic and zoonotic disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania spp. and is potentially fatal to dogs. Clinical presentation is highly variable with a broad spectrum of signs and degrees of severity and its treatment usually represents a challenge. Due to the elevated prevalence of kidney disease in the canine population with leishmaniasis, it is important to consider an effective treatment drug with few renal side effects. Recent data have shown that marbofloxacin has leishmanicidal effects without causing changes in renal parameters of non-azotemic affected dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the effect on renal function of marbofloxacin in dogs with leishmaniasis and concurrent chronic renal disease (CKD). Twenty eight dogs with leishmaniasis and CKD (11 animals in stage 1 and 17 in stage >1; based on IRIS recommendations) and no other coexisting diseases were enrolled in the study. Dogs were treated with oral marbofloxacin at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Physical exam, blood pressure, CBC, serum chemistry profile, and urinalysis (including urine creatine:protein ratio and urinary cystatin C) were recorded at baseline (day 0) and after treatment with marbofloxacin (day 28) to determine the drug effect on renal function. Lymph node aspirations were also taken at days 0 and 28 to quantify the parasitic load by real-time PCR. Values are expressed as meanAESE. P < 0.05 was considered significant. In the dogs under study the treatment with marbofloxacin was well tolerated with no obvious side effects and the clinical signs related to the disease notably improved. These dogs with impaired renal function evidenced an improvement in some of the CKD biomarkers: a significant decrease in the urinary protein loss (from 3.8 AE 0.5 to 2.9 AE 0.4; P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (from 180.0 AE 6.9 to 170.0 AE 7.3 mmHg; P < 0.05). Moreover, 72% of the dogs showed a significant reduction in parasitic load while in 28% the parasitic load remained stable. In relation to the aforementioned findings, dogs showed a significant increase in plasma albumin concentration (from 15.0 AE 1.0 to 16.6 AE 0.7 g/L; P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in globulin concentration (from 59.0 AE 3.4 to 54.1 AE 3.4 g/L; P < 0.05). No significant changes were found in the other parameters under study. In conclusion and based on these results, marbofloxacin can be chosen as an effective and safe alternative for treatment of dogs with leishmania and concurrent CKD. Disclosures: Disclosures to report. The study described in the abstract has received financial support as a grant for research from the company Vetoquinol, S.A. In puppies, there is a critical period during which the quantity of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) is not sufficient to ensure a passive protection against infectious diseases but could interfere with the development of an active immunisation with vaccines. The study aim was to evaluate the impact of the presence of MDA on the development of an active protection against parvovirosis with Canigen Ò DHPPi/L vaccine (Virbac, France).

ESVC -European Society of Veterinary Cardiology

Disclosures: Disclosures to report. A. Feugier and I. van Hoek are employees of Royal Canin SAS, Aimargues, France. Well-known congenital thoracic cardiovascular anomalies in the dog are patent ductus arteriosus and persistent right aortic arch. These cardiovascular anomalies are clinically significant and their prevalence has been reported in veterinary medicine. Contrary to these, developmental anomalies of thoracic vessels that may not cause clinical signs are usually not detected or are identified as incidental findings, and their prevalence is unknown. However, these might be of importance as interference with thoracic surgery, interventional procedures, or interpretation of thoracic imaging is possible.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine the prevalence of anatomical variations of the great thoracic vessels.
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. In humans, early identification of the same disease is possible through the detection or repolarisation abnormalities on precordial chest leads: particularly T-wave inversion and possibly J-point abnormalities. We hypothesized that these same ECG abnormalities would be able to identify ARVC in a population of Boxer dogs. 12-lead ECGs were prospectively recorded from adult Boxer dogs presenting to the Cardiology services of five veterinary referral centres and one general practice in the UK. Dogs with aortic stenosis were excluded. ARVC (n = 21) was diagnosed based upon the presence of >50 VPCs/24 h on Holter. Control dogs (n = 34) had no evidence of ventricular arrhythmia, no significant heart murmur, and no clinical signs or history of cardiovascular disease. T waves were classified as positive or negative in each pre-cordial chest lead (V1-V6), and J waves were recorded as present or absent, with identification of J-point slurring or notching as described for humans. There was no significant difference in age, weight or sex between groups. J-point abnormalities were identified in up to 48% of dogs (greatest in lead V4, but variable between different precordial leads). There was no significant difference in the frequency with which J-point abnormalities were identified in dogs with ARVC vs. controls (P > 0.272). The frequency of T-wave inversion varied according to chest lead: in lead V1 it was rare (ARVC 0%, controls 3%) but in lead V6 it was common (ARVC 81%, controls 68%). ARVC dogs had a significantly greater prevalence of Twave inversion in lead V4 (29%, vs. controls 6%, P = 0.046) and lead V5 (52%, vs. controls 15%, P = 0.005).
ROC analysis was performed. T-wave inversion in lead V5 had a sensitivity of 52.4% and a specificity of 85.3% for the detection of ARVC (AUC 0.688, P = 0.02). In this population of dogs where the prevalence of ARVC was 38%, the positive predictive value was 69%, with a negative predictive value of 74%.
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in dogs with a high prevalence among Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS). Valvular changes may cause mitral regurgitation (MR) and over time, some dogs can progress into congestive heart failure. Increased circulating concentrations of serotonin are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of MMVD in CKCS. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is a serotonin metabolite excreted in urine. Urine 5-HIAA is commonly used in human medicine as a biomarker of serotonin-secreting tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate if urinary 5-HIAA is associated with MMVD severity in CKCS. We hypothesized that the urine 5-HIAA concentration was increased in CKCS with MMVD and that urine 5-HIAA concentration would correlate with the serotonin concentration in serum or plasma.


Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly diagnosed in cats in the UK. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence of 1.7-3.6% in the cat population in the UK. Little is known about how CKD is diagnosed and treated in the primary-care setting in the UK. The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CKD in the UK and to describe diagnostic procedures and treatments employed.

ESVNU -European Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology

Cats that presented to 90 veterinary clinics between January 2012 and December 2013 were included in the study. Using the VetCompass database, potential cases were identified by searching the electronic patient record for key terms associated with CKD diagnosis. A random sample of 20% of the potential cases were reviewed in detail to identify cats diagnosed with CKD. Data were extracted from the database for demographics, diagnosis, treatment and comorbidities. Prevalence and incidence were estimated adjusting for the sampling approach.
Of 104977 cats presented, 6691 potential cases were identified. From the potential cases reviewed in detail, 345 new and 199 preexisting cases were confirmed. Estimated prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.4-2.8%) and estimated incidence of new cases was 1.6% (95% CI 1.5-1.8%) over the study period. Median age at diagnosis was 15 years(IQR 12.5-16.9 yr). Most cats (61.1%) were presented because of owner reported clinical signs. The majority of cats (51%) had 2 or more signs at diagnosis with weight loss (44.1%) and polydipsia (32.5%) most commonly reported. Combined biochemistry and urinalysis was the most common method of diagnosis (61.9%). One fifth (20.9%) of cats had a UPC performed. Just under one third (30.4%) of vets recorded IRIS staging with just over half (50.2%) of the staged cats having IRIS CKD stage 2 at diagnosis. One third (33.6%) of cats had at least one blood pressure measurement, with 47.4% of these cats being diagnosed with hypertension. A commercial 'renal diet' (65.8%) and Benazepril (32.8%) were the most common treatments prescribed.

ESVE -European Society of Veterinary Endocrinology

Diabetic and overweight cats have higher levels of fPLI compared with lean cats. Whether this correlates with increased prevalence of subclinical pancreatitis remains to be determined. Cats more than 10 years of age have increased levels of fPLI and lower cobalamin and this association may exist for fTLI, as well.
Whether cats develop similar patterns of 131 I-induced hypothyroidism is unknown, but hypothyroidism has generally been considered uncommon, transient, or clinically irrelevant. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of 131 I-induced hypothyroidism in cats to determine its onset, duration (transient or persistent), and clinical relevance. 569 hyperthyroid cats, successfully treated with low-dose 131 I (median dose, 78 mBq), underwent assessments of serum T4 and TSH concentrations at 1, 3, 6, 12, and ≥18 months post-treatment. Cats that developed high TSH concentrations were classified as having either overt or subclinical hypothyroidism (based on finding of low or normal T4 value, respectively).
At 1 month, 15% of cats were hypothyroid; of these, 27% were overtly hypothyroid. Subsequently, 11%, 9%, 5%, and 9% of remaining cats became hypothyroid at 3, 6, 12, and ≥18 months (resulting in a total of 23% of all cats); 95% of these had subclinical hypothyroidism. Very few cats manifested obvious clinical signs associated with hypothyroidism; however, the prevalence of new or worsening azotemia was significantly higher in hypothyroid cats than in euthyroid cats. Levothyroxine supplementation (30 cats) significantly decreased both serum TSH and creatinine concentrations.

ESVIM -European Society of Veterinary

Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is related to congenitally flattened facial and skull anatomy. BOAS causes respiratory distress, heat and exercise intolerance, and gastrointestinal signs. The English Bulldog (EB) is one of the brachycephalic breeds with a high prevalence of BOAS. Currently, the severity of BOAS signs is subjectively assessed. To improve the welfare of brachycephalic breeds, an objective and easy-to-use tool is needed to help breeders to select healthier animals. Exercise tests, such as the 6-min walk test (distance walked measured) or the 1000-m walk test (time to complete measured), could be used to assess the level of BOAS, as exercise intolerance and impaired recovery are key features of BOAS. This study evaluated the severity of signs and anatomic components of BOAS in a group of prospectively recruited young adult EBs (n = 28) and investigated how well the results of the 6-min walk test and the 1000-m walk test correlate with severity of BOAS. EBs with more severe BOAS walked a shorter distance, longer time and their recovery from exercise took longer than those with only mild signs of BOAS. Control dogs of different breeds (n = 10) performed the exercise tests significantly better than EBs. Body temperature rise during exercise was significantly higher in EBs than in controls. The results of this study support the use of exercise tests for objective evaluation of the level of BOAS.


Canine sarcomas seem to share many similarities with their human counterparts and appear attractive for comparative telomere research. As in humans, ALT might have a higher prevalence in aggressive canine sarcoma subtypes. Overall, besides TA also ALT has to be considered as a potential target for therapeutic approaches.


Disclosures: Disclosures to report: The authors are employees of IDEXX Laboratories. Tick-borne encephalitis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks. The causative agent is tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus. Since no anti-TBEV canine vaccine is available, seropositivity of dogs indicates natural exposures to Flavivirus. Dogs have served as sentinels in identifying the risk areas for humans of the natural Flavivirus foci and the seroprevalences in healthy dogs were shown to fluctuate from 0-30% depending on areas. Dogs may be resistant to developing clinical signs but clinical cases are often fatal. Our study had two aims: (i) assess the TBEV-seroprevalence in dogs showing neurological signs and its relationship with regard to gender, age and breed, (ii) evaluate the possible concordance of TBEV-seroprevalence and the specific areas suspected of Flavivirus foci in accordance with the RKI (Robert-Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany) classification of 'risk counties'. Between 2013 and 2015, we analysed 433 blood samples obtained from dogs with various unspecified neurological signs suspected of TBEV-infection. The majority of the samples came from Germany (299), Austria (54), Czech Republic (33), Sweden (15), Switzerland (12), and Norway (10). IgG-antibodies to TBEV were assayed using a commercially available ELISA. Based on the Antibody-titre results, dogs could be classified as follows: Ab-positive (>126 U/ml): 48/433 (11.1%), 'borderline range' (≥63 ≤ 126 U/ml): 20/433 (4.6%), and Ab-negative (<63 U/ml): 365/433 (84.3%). By breed with ≥10 dogs, Ab-positive dogs were in the following decreasing order: Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, Yorkshire Terriers, Mongrels, and Bernese Mountain Dogs. No gender-dependency could be detected. The median age of the Ab-positive dogs was 6.5 (1-13) years. 28/299 (9.4%) dogs from Germany were Ab-positive and 27/28 (96.4%) came from risk areas (Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Hesse, Thuringia, and Saarland). Dogs from other countries presented the following Abpositivity; Austria: 14/54 (26%), Czech Republic: 4/33 (12.1%), Norway: 1/10 (10%) and Switzerland: 0/12 (0%). Our present study showed that (i) Retrievers were the predominant breeds with respect to TBEV-seropositivity and (ii) a high concordance was confirmed between seropositive dogs with neurological signs and the TBEV-risk areas in Germany as defined by the classification of the RKI. Our data also suggested that, although seroprevalence could be low, TBE should be considered a potentially useful differential diagnosis in dogs with neurological signs when the dog has a history of travelling or living in risk areas and, in that case, the serological diagnosis should be confirmed by a paired sample, taken two weeks apart.


Disclosures English Bull Terriers (EBT) may well have a high prevalence of murmurs and are presumed to be predisposed for mitral valve dysplasia, mitral valve stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). These cardiac disorders could lead to congestive heart failure, syncope and sudden death. Aforementioned disorders are congenital and might be hereditary. The relative prevalence of heart disease in the Dutch and Belgian EBT breeding population has not been reported. Many EBT are presented to the "Kliniek voor Gezelschapsdieren Eersel"(KVGD) for echocardiography prior to breeding. The aim of this study was to report on echocardiographic findings in the Dutch and Belgian breeding population of EBT.
In this population of apparently healthy EBT increased VmaxAo and smaller aortic diameters were found. A physiological mitral regurgitation jet was quite common (25%), but no mitral valve dysplasia or mitral valve stenosis was seen. Further prospective observational studies are needed to determine specific EBT reference ranges, true prevalence, natural history and heredity of heart disease in the EBT breed.
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Sudden death (SD) commonly occurs in dog breeds with a high predisposition to VPDs, like Doberman pinschers or boxers. Irish wolfhounds (IW) have a high prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and atrial fibrillation (AF). A recently performed longitudinal study of 134 IW with DCM, and 47 IW with initial lone AF revealed that SD occurred in 21 to 25% of these dogs. The objective of this study was to compare ECG findings of IW with cardiomyopathy (CM) to those without.


The aims were to determine prevalence and characteristics of SID (SI < 90 μg/dL) in dogs with MVD, to analyze differences in SI among ACVIM classes, symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and to study the association between SID and survival.
The prevalence of SID in MVD dogs was 16% (8/50: 6 symptomatic and 2 non-symptomatic). Only 3 patients (6%) presented anemia (Hct ≤ 37%). TIBC was within or above the reference range (NV: 270-496 lg/dL) in all dogs with SID, except one (reduced TIBC), while % SAT was below the minimum level (NV: >23%) in 5/8 dogs (62%).
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension is common in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). Its prevalence increases with severity of DMVD and its presence is a predictor of worse outcome. Left atrial (LA) function and size are prognostic indicators in DMVD. In dogs, LA contractile function has been shown to decrease with severity of DMVD. In human with chronic mitral regurgitation, LA function is an important correlate of right ventricular systolic pressure. The aim of this study was to assess if LA dysfunction was associated with PH in dogs with DMVD. Dogs with DMVD and a measurable tricuspid regurgitation (TR) were retrospectively recruited. Maximal LA diameter, LA diameter at the onset of the P wave and minimal LA diameter were measured on anatomic M-mode from 2D cineloops on aortic short axis view. Left atrial reservoir (LA expansion index; Total LA shortening fraction), conduit (Passive LA shortening fraction) and contractile function (Active LA shortening fraction) indices were derived from above measures. Ninety three dogs including ACVIM stage B1 (22), B2 (28), C (39) and D (4), were included. Dogs were assigned to pulmonary hypertensive group (PH) (TR pressure gradient >40 mmHg) (n = 29, median: 51 mmHg; range: 40-114) or pulmonary normotensive group (PN) (n = 64, 29 mmHg; 5-40). LA reservoir and contractile function indices were reduced in ACVIM stage C and D compared to asymptomatic stages (P < 0.001) and TR pressure gradient was higher in symptomatic dogs (P < 0.05) compared to asymptomatic dogs. TR gradient was positively correlated with LA size measured at different time intervals (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA reservoir (P = 0.02) and contractile (P = 0.009) variables LA reservoir variables (P = 0.008), and active LA shortening fraction (P = 0.006) were lower in PH group compared to PN ANCOVA was used to test the categorical effect of ACVIM stages along with the effects of LA function indices on TR pressure gradient. ACVIM stage had a strong effect on TR gradient (P < 0.001) but LA function parameters did not persist after correction for ACVIM stages. This study confirmed that, in dogs with DMVD, PH is strongly associated with the stage of heart failure but failed to show an independent relationship between LA dysfunction and development of PH. The reason may be a lack of accuracy of one dimensional variables to assess LA phasic function or the absence of causal link between LA dysfunction and development of pulmonary hypertension in DMVD dogs. Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Mineralisation of the heart and great vessels has been reported as an incidental radiographic finding in dogs. The prevalence has been reported at 0.61% on thoracic radiography. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging is being used more frequently in dogs in recent years, but the CT prevalence of mineralisation is unreported. It may be higher because of the increased sensitivity of CT compared with radiography. The aim of the study was therefore to describe the prevalence and location of cardiac and great vessel mineralisation in dogs and to evaluate its association with age, sex and concurrent disease. Thoracic CT studies of 878 dogs carried out between 2011-2014 at a veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed. Poor quality CTs were excluded, resulting in 802 dogs available for inclusion. A single, trained operator systematically reviewed all CT studies and a panel of three Board-certified Cardiologists and one Board-certified Diagnostic Imager reviewed all abnormalities. The cases were grouped by: sex (male/female); age (1-5 years, ≥5 to 10 years, and >10 years), and concurrent disease process: neoplasia, cardiorespiratory, neurological, internal medicine, surgical (soft tissue and orthopaedics), and miscellaneous.


In conclusion, mineralisation of the heart and/or great vessels is present in 12% of dogs on thoracic CT. The aortic bulb is the most frequent site observed, accounting for >75% of mineralisation. Dogs >5 years old were more likely to demonstrate mineralisation than younger dogs. No association with disease state suggests that this is an incidental finding, despite the remarkably higher prevalence detected on CT than plain radiography.


Disclosures: No disclosures to report. The risk of functional impairment of the kidney, CKD and AKI, is a common problem in cancer due to infiltration or nephrotoxic chemotherapeutics. While about 40% of human lymphoma patients are known to have compromised kidney function, only 20% of the affected patients are diagnosed by creatinine while the remaining 80% require biopsies for diagnostic accuracy. A study of 5000 human patients with a variety of solid tumors demonstrated that the prevalence of reduced GFR was about 52% and 12% had advanced CKD (stages 3-5). Given the increased incidence of cancer; new therapies are being developed at a frenetic pace leading to an increased need to identify kidney disease early and highlighting the demand for more effective and sensitive biomarkers. At this time such detailed information is nonexistent for veterinary patients, however there is no reason to think that it is any different. Methylation of arginine is a signaling process with asymmetric methylation activating transcription and expression while symmetric methylation is a repressive signal. It's important to understand if increased protein turnover in malignancies will lead to increased production of dimethylarginines. In a human study that included different types of cancer, ADMA but not SDMA, was shown to have significantly increased in the cancer cohort compared to controls. The observed increase in SDMA is likely due to impaired kidneys and not cancer related increased production of SDMA; while the increase in ADMA is likely due to increased protein turnover as a result of transcriptional activation.


Disclosures: No disclosures to report. Feline hyperthyroidism is an emerging metabolic disease of middle-aged to older cats that seems to have shown a marked increase in its world-wide incidence within the last three decades as well as a marked geographic variation in prevalence. The exact pathogenesis of the disease still remains obscure and despite a plethora of epidemiological studies, clear risk factors have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa and to identify potential risk factors associated with the disease in this geographic location.
The prevalence of hyperthyroidism (tT4 > 50 nmol/L or tT4 between 30-50 nmol/L with TSH < 0.03 ng/ml and fT4 > 50 pmol/ L) within this population was 7.0% [95% CI: 4.4, 10] with no significant difference in prevalence between healthy (5.1% [1.9, 11]) and sick (8.2% [4.6, 13] ) cats. Cats ≥ 12 years of age (OR = 4.3 [95% CI: 1.2, 15], P = 0.02) and cats with canned food in their diet (OR = 2.1 [95% CI: 0.8, 5.4], P = 0.1) were more likely to be diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. . No statistically significant relationship between vaccinations, parasite control or indoor environment and hyperthyroidism was observed. Hyperthyroid cats were more likely to present with weight loss (OR = 3.2 [95% CI: 1.2, 8.9], P = 0.01) and with a heart rate ≥ 200 bpm (OR = 5 [95% CI: 1.7, 16.1], P = 0.01) than cats without the disease.
The prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa appears to be similar to that previously documented in cats in Japan and Portugal but less than that documented in cats in the United Kindgdom and Germany. Risk factors for hyperthyroidism, previously found in other epidemiological studies, specifically older age and the presence of canned food in the diet also appear to be present in this study population.


There was strong correlation between assays with a bias for both canine and feline samples. The significance of this bias is unknown in the absence of a gold standard. Systemic hypertension is common in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), however its prevalence and factors associated have not been frequently reported. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and severity of hypertension in dogs with HAC at the time of diagnosis and the potential relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and different parameters (age, sex, reproductive status, duration of clinical signs before diagnosis, body condition score, concurrent diseases, type of HAC and ACTH stimulation test results).
Forty dogs with HAC were included, 35 with pituitary HAC and 5 with adrenal HAC. Age ranged from 6 to 15 years, 15 dogs were intact and 25 dogs were neutered. Twenty eight dogs (70%) were hypertensive and 18/40 (45%) at severe RTOD (>180 mmHg). Higher prevalence of hypertension and higher mean values of SBP were observed in intact dogs (87%; 183.3 AE 30.2 mm Hg) than in neutered (60%; 165.3 AE 35.7 mm Hg) (P = 0.074; P = 0.078). Higher prevalence of severe RTOD was also observed in intact dogs (67% versus 32%) (P = 0.033). Positive correlation between SBP and duration of clinical signs before diagnosis was observed (P = 0.063). Dogs at severe RTOD had clinical signs for a longer period of time before diagnosis (10.5 AE 5.6 months) than animals with moderate/mild RTOD or normotensive (7.68 AE 5.6 months) (P = 0.084). No significant correlation was observed between SBP and the rest of the variables listed above.
Prevalence of hypertension among untreated dogs with HAC is high, similar than previously reported (59 to 86%). Prevalence of severe RTOD was similar to previously reported (42%), but different to observed by others (11% and 70%) probably reflecting differences in the population studied. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be performed as part of the initial investigations in dogs with suspected HAC.
For the calculation of the prevalence, the dog population of one center (university reference center for CS) was evaluated separately from the population of the four clinics that were not reference centers for CS.
In total 104 dogs were identified with CS on the basis of history, clinical and laboratory findings and positivity to LDDS test and/or ACTH stimulation test. The prevalence in the 4 clinics was 0.20% (95%CI, 0.13-0.27) and was significantly different compared to the reference center (1.46%; 95%CI , 1.12-1.80).
The results of this study have identify a prevalence of 0.2% of CS in an Italian canine population. The data support the existence of sex predisposition in developing CS with the highest risk for neutered females. As observed in other studies, some breeds are more predisposed to develop CS.
Twenty-six dogs were included, 15 females and 9 males. Ages ranged from 7 to 15 years. Twenty dogs (77%) were hypertensive at diagnosis and 15/26 (58%) were at severe RTOD. Prevalence of hypertension was similar throughout the study (73% 1-MAT, 84% 3-MAT, 80% 6-MAT) whilst the percentage of hypertensive animals at severe RTOD decreased (75% before treatment; 63% 1-MAT, 31% 3-MAT and 42% 6-MAT; but not significantly). Of the normotensive dogs at diagnosis, 2/5 (40%) remained normotensive 6-MAT and 3/5 (60%) became hypertensive at mild RTOD (150-159 mm Hg). Of the hypertensive dogs at diagnosis, 9/10 (90%) remained hypertensive 6-MAT being 5/10 (50%) at severe RTOD (≥180 mmHg).
Prevalence of hypertension in dogs with HAC did not decrease during the first 6 months of treatment with trilostane, which has also been reported in people. A slight increase in SBP is observed in normotensive patients once treatment is started. Control of HAC with trilostane is not correlated with control of blood pressure and hypertensive dogs should be monitored closely. Hyperadrenocorticism is a progressive disease and treatment may not completely normalize the deleterious effects of hypercortisolism.
Disclosures: No disclosures to report. were defined as dogs that had responded to treatment, in which immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotic treatment was discontinued without relapses. Group 2, were defined as dogs that responded to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs but the disease relapsed after interruption of treatment. Group 3, were defined as dogs that did not respond to diet, antibiotic and immunosuppressive drugs. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were obtained for groups 1, 2 and 3; the survival curves for these groups were compared using the log-rank test. A two stage-analysis was also applied. In the first univariate stage, the variables were screened using x 2 test. In the second stage, factors that screened through P < 0.15 were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression, The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from the final model. One hundred and four dogs met the inclusion criteria. Dogs of group 1 and 2 had a median survival longer than dogs of group 3, 1250 days (range 210-4380) and 913 days (range 61-3100) versus 210 days (range 30-2005), respectively. At univariate regression analysis, a statistical difference in dogs of group 3 with respect to dogs of group 1 and 2 in following variables, were observed: previous treatment with steroids; weight loss; prevalence of small bowel diarrhoea; decreased haematocrit, serum albumin, total protein, creatinine, cholesterol; increased concentration of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); and received treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs than steroids at diagnosis. In multivariable model analysis previous treatment with steroids (OR = 5.47; 95%CI 1.86-16.11; P = 0.001) and decreased total proteins (OR = 12.5; 95%CI 3.62-41.75; P = 0.016) were independent variables associated with belonging to group 3.
37 section matches

Conflicts of interest:

This study is based on a PhD supported by Probiotics Ltd., Somerset, UK (the manufacturer of the probiotic product Enterococcus faecium mentioned in this study). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases (pAmpC) E. coliproducers in healthy dogs.


Conflicts of interest: Dr Allenspach has received research funding from BBSRC, American Kennel Club, Comparative Gastroenterology Society, Probiotics Ltd UK, Laboklin GmBH Germany, and Bioiberica Sp. she has also undertaken paid consultancy work for Bioiberica Spain and Hoffmann-Laroche, Switzerland. Despite the high prevalence of canine pancreatitis in postmortem studies and the introduction of new diagnostic tests, it is believed that the disease, particularly in its chronic form, remains under recognised due to the non-specific nature of presenting signs. Histology is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis of canine pancreatitis, however, most clinicians are reluctant to take pancreatic biopsies due to significant risks to the patient.

Conflicts of interest:

Dr Bussadori receives royalties from ESAOTE (Florence, italy) related to an european patent (nr 071129712) he developed for Xstrain software. The study was not funded by a research grant. Cardiac cachexia which is characterized by progressive weight loss and depletion of lean body mass, is an independent predictor of survival in human patients with congestive heart failure. Chronic degenerative mitral valve disease (CDMD) is one of the most common cardiac diseases in dogs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and the effects of cardiac cachexia in survival of dogs with CDMD.
Prevalence of cardiac cachexia, anemia and azotemia was 32.5%, 15.8% and 45.6%, respectively. These conditions were the most prevalent in NYHA class 4, followed by NYHA classes 3 and 2. The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia was not significantly different among classes. The one-year body weight change was found in the NYHA classes 2 (increased 2.7 AE 10.7%), 3 (decreased 1.3 AE 12.3%) and 4 (decreased 6.1 AE 9.5%). The difference between classes 4 and 2 was significant. Results of the Cox proportional hazard model indicated that survival time was significantly positively associated with NYHA functional severity at diagnosis (P < 0.001), presence of cardiac cachexia, weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and azotemia (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.0033, P = 0.003 and P = 0.019, respectively).
The prevalence of cardiac cachexia was common in advanced CDMD dogs, and the parameters of cardiac cachexia, namely weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and azotemia were strong prognostic factors associated with survival.
No conflicts of interest reported. Mitral valve disease (MVD) is the most common cardiovascular disease in dogs. It's characterized by myxomatous degeneration, which causes mitral valve prolapse (MVP), mitral regurgitation (MR) and a left apical systolic murmur (LASM). MVD affects small breed dogs with a very high prevalence in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS). The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of LASM, MVP and MR in the Maltese, the most presented breed among dogs with MVD in Taiwan. The correlation between these 3 measurements and the influence of age, gender, reproductive state, and body weight were also investigated. Study results were compared to other MVD prevalence studies in Europe and North-America. 162 client-owned Maltese dogs (75 males and 87 females; body weight 1.35-7.15 kg; age 2-15 yrs) with no signs of heart failure were recruited. The intensity (grade 1-6) of LASM was recorded. Grade of MVP (mild/severe) and MR severity (mild/moderate/ severe) were evaluated by echocardiography. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlation between age and presence of LASM, MVP and MR. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate whether sex and reproductive-status were related to prevalences of LASM, MVP and MR. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationships between age, body weight, LASM intensity, grade of MVP and severity of MR. The prevalence of LASM, MVP and MR were 28.4%, 34% and 41.4%, respectively. All have positive correlation with age (p = 0.000). The age at which 50% of the dogs had LASM, MVP and MR was 7.7, 7.5, and 5.6 years, respectively. The LASM intensity, MVP grade and MR severity were all positively correlated to age (all p = 0.000) and had no correlation with BW and reproductive status. Females had a significantly higher prevalence of LASM than males (36% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.046). Maltese dogs in Taiwan have a very high prevalence and an early development of MVD as compared to other small breed dogs, similar to MVD in CKCS in other countries. Since we only recruited asymptomatic Dogs, this study may underestimate the prevalence of MVD in the whole Maltese population. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document the high prevalence of MVD in Taiwanese Maltese.The Maltese may be a new canine model for genetic, pathology, and natural history studies in MVD.
The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) complicating chronic valvular heart disease (CVHD) in dogs and to investigate the relationship between class of cardiac insufficiency (ACVIM) and class of renal insufficiency (IRIS).